EE2403 Special Electrical Machines - Question Bank with Answers | EE 2403 2 Marks & 16 Marks with Answers for EEE - Seventh (7th) Semester ...

EE2403 Special Electrical Machines - Question Bank with Answers | EE 2403 2 Marks & 16 Marks with Answers for EEE - Seventh (7th) Semester ...



Posted by R.Anirudhan


Click here to download

EE2403  SPECIAL ELECTRICAL MACHINES
VII SEMESTER ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Two Mark Questions and Answers
UNIT I
1. What is a synchronous reluctance motor?
A reluctance motor that utilizes an ac rotating field, which allows for the possibility of
extremely smooth torque and good operation to low speeds.
2. What are the types of rotor in synchronous reluctance motor?
1: Salient rotor
2. Radially laminated rotor
3. Axially laminated rotor
3. Mention some applications of synchronous reluctance motor.
1. Fiber-spinning mills
2. Industrial process equipment
3. Metering pumps
4. Wrapping and folding machines
5. What are the advantages of increasing LdILq ratio in synchronous reluctance
motor?
1. Motor power factor increases.
2. 12R losses reduced.
3. Reduced volt-ampere ratings of the inverter driving the machine.
6. Compare synchronous reluctance motor and induction motor.
Synchronous reluctance motor Induction motor
1.
2.
3.
4.
Better efficiency
Highcost
Low power factor.
Used for low and medium power
application.
Efficiency is low compared with
synchronous reluctance motor.
Lowcost
High power factor.
Used for high power application.
7. Write down the torque equation of synchronous reluctance motor.
8. Draw the torque-angle characteristics of synchronous reluctance motor.
9. Draw the speed-torque characteristics of synchronous reluctance motor.
10. Draw the steady-state phasor diagram of synchronous reluctance motor.
11. What is Vernier motor?
Vernier motor is a permanent magnet motor and has a high torque at low speed. It operates
on the principles of a Vernier.
12. What is the application of Vernier motor?
The Vernier motor is mainly used where require low speed and high torque.
13. Mention some advantages and disadvantages of synchronous reluctance
Motor
Advantages
1. There is no concern with demagnetization, hence synchronous reluctance.
2. There need be no excitation field at zero torque, thus eliminating electromagnetic spinning
losses.
3. Synchronous reluctance machine rotors can be constructed entirely from high strength,
low-cost materials.
Disadvantages
1. Compared to induction motor it is slightly heavier and has low power factor. But
Increasing the saliency ratio , the power factor can be improved.
2. High cost than induction motor.
3. Need speed synchronization to inverter output frequency by using rotor position sensor
and sensor less control.
14. Write down any two properties of synchronous reluctance motor.
1. High output power capability.
2. Ability of the rotor to withstand high speeds.
3. Negligible zero-torque spinning losses.
4. High reliability.
15. What is reluctance torque is synchronous reluctance motor?
The torque exerted by the reluctance motor because of the tendency of the salient poles to
align themselves in the minimum reluctance position. This torque is called reluctance torque.
16. What arc the design considerations in synchronous reluctance motor?
1. Power factor
2. Copper loss and core loss
3. Cost
4. Efficiency
UNIT II
1.What is stepper motor?
A stepper motor is a digital actuator whose input is in the form of programmed energization
of the stator windings and whose output is in the form of discrete angular rotation.
2. Define the term step angle.
Step angle is defined as the angle through which the stepper motor shaft rotates for each
command pulse. It is denoted as β.
3. Define slewing.
The stepper motor may be operate at very high stepping rates i.e., 25000 steps per second. A
stepper motor operates at high speeds is called slewing.
4. Write down the formula for motor speed of stepper motor.
5. Define resolution.
It is defined as the number of steps needed to complete one revolution of the rotor shaft.
6. State some applications of stepper motor.
1. Floppy disk drives
2. Quartz watches
3. Camera shutter operation
4, Dot matrix and line printers
5. Machine tool applications
6. Robotics
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of stepper motor?
Advantages
1. It can driven open loop without feedback.
2. Responds directly to digital control signals, so stepper motors are natural choice for digital
computer controls.
3. It is mechanically simple.
4, It requires little or no maintenance.
Disadvantages
1. Low efficiency with ordinary controller.
2. Fixed step angle.
3. Limited ability to handle large inertia load
4. Limited power output and sizes available.
8. What are the different types of stepper motor?
1. Variable reluctance stepper motor
2. Permanent magnet stepper motor
3. Hybrid stepper motor
9. What are the different modes of excitation in a stepper motor?
1. 1 - Phase on or full - step operation
2. 2-phaseonmode
3. Half- step operation (Alternate 1-phase on and 2-phase on mode)
4. Micro stepping operation
10. What is meant by full-step operation?
It is the one-phase on mode operation. It means, at that time only one winding is energized.
By energizing one stator winding, the rotor rotates some angle. It is the full-step operation.
11, What is meant by half- step operation?
It is the alternate one-phase on and 2-phase on mode operation. Here, the rotor rotate an each
step angle is half of the full-step angle.
12. Sketch the diagram of a VR stepper motor
13. What is meant by micro stepping in stepper motor?
Micro stepping means, the step angle of the VR stepper motor is very small. It is also called
mini - stepping. It can be achieved by two phases simultaneously as in 2-phase on mode but
with the two currents deliberately made unequal.
14. What is the main application of micro stepping VR stepper motor?
Micro stepping is mainly used where very fine resolution is required. The applications are
printing and photo type setting. AVR stepper motor with micro stepping provides very
smooth low - speed operation and high resolution.
15. What is a multi - stack VR stepper motor?
Micro stepping of VR stepper motor can be achieved by using multi stack VR stepper
motion. It has three separate magnetically isolated sections or stacks. Here the rotor an stator
teeths are equal.
16.What are the advantages and disadvantages of VR stepper motor?
Advantages
1. Low rotor inertia
2. High torque to inertia ratio
3. Lightweight
4.Capable of high stepping rate.
5. Ability to freewheel
Disadvantages
1. Normally available in 3.6° to 30 step angles.
2. No detente torque available with windings de – energized
17.What are the advantages & disadvantages of permanent magnet stepper motor?
Advantages
1. Low power requirement
2. High detente torque as compared to VR motor
3. Rotor do not require external exciting current
4. It produces more torque per ampere stator current
Disadvantages
1. Motor has higher inertia
2. Slower acceleration
18.What is hybrid stepper motor?
A hybrid stepper motor combines the features of both PM and VR stepping motors.
19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hybrid stepper motor?
Advantages
I. Less tendency to resonate
2. Provide deterte torque with windings de-energized
3. Higher holding torque capability
4. High stepping rate capability
Disadvantages
1. Higher inertia and weight due to presence of rotor magnet.
2. Performance affected by change in magnetic strength.
20. Draw the typical static characteristics of a stepper motor.
21. Differential between VR, PM and hybrid stepper motor.
VR
Stepper motor
PM
Stepper motor
Hybrid stepper
motor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Low rotor inertia
Less weight
No detente torque
available windings
de-energized
Rotor is no permanent
magnet
Rotor is a salient pole type
high inertia
More weight
Provides detente
torque
rotor is permanent
magnet
rotor is a
cylindrical type
High inertia
More weight
Provides détente
torque with
windings
de-energized
rotor is permanent
magnet
rotor is a salient
pole type
22. Define holding torque.
Holding torque is the maximum load torque which the energized stepper motor can withstand
without slipping from equilibrium position.
23. Define detente torque.
Detente torque is the maximum load torque which is un energized stepper motor can with
stand without slipping. It is also known as cogging torque.
24. Define torque constant.
Torque constant of the stepper motor is defined as the initial slope of the torque current curve
of the stepper motor. It is also called as torque sensitivity.
25. Draw the typical dynamic characteristics of a stepper motor.
26. Define pull-in torque.
It is the maximum torque the stepper motor can develop in start - stop mode at a given
stepping rate F (steps/sec), without losing synchronism,
27. Define pull-out torque.
It is the maximum torque the stepper motor can develop at a given stepping rate F (steps/sec),
without losing synchronism.
28. Define pull-in rate.
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will start or stop, without losing
synchronism, against a given load torque.
29. Define pull-out rate.
It is the maximum stepping rate at which the stepper motor will slow, without losing
synchronism against a given load torque.
30. What is a response range?
It is the range of stepping rates at which the stepper motor can start or stop with losing
synchronism, at a given load torque. Response range spans stepping rates the pull in
rate.
31. What is a slewing range?
It is the range of stepping rates at which the stepper motor can run in the slov mode, with
losing synchronism, at a given load torque.
The slewing range spans stepping rates
32. What is synchronism in stepper motor?
It is the one-to-one correspondance between the number of pulses applied to stepper motor
controller and the number of steps through which the motor has actually moved.
33. What is mid - frequency resonance in stepper motor?
in the pull in curve of a stepper motor, suddenly dips very low in particular range of stepping
rates. This phenomenon is known as mid-frequency resonance. I This phenomenon is a
manifestation of instability of motor operation.
34. Draw the block diagram of the drive system of a stepping motor
35. What is logic sequencer?
Logic sequence generator generates programmed logic sequences require for operation of a
stepper motor.
36. What is meant by power drive circuit in stepper motor?
The output from the logic sequence generator signals are low level signals which are too
weak to energize stepper motor windings. To increase the voltage, current and power levels
of the logic sequence output by using power semiconductor switching circuit. This circuit is
called power drive circuit.
37. What is the use of current suppression circuit?
This circuits are used to ensure fast decay of current through the winding when the transistor
is turned off
38. What are the types of current suppression circuits?
1. Diode suppression
2. Diode resistor suppression
3. Diode - zener diode suppression
4. Active suppression
39. Draw any two drive circuits for stepper motor
40.How is the step of permanent magnet stepper motor controlled?
The step of the permanent magnet stepper motor is controlled by energization of phase
winding with positive or negative current.
41. How is the step of permanent magnet stepper motor controlled?
The step of the permanent magnet stepper motor is controlled by energization of phase
winding with positive or negative current.
UNIT III
1. What are the types of power controllers used for switched reluctance motor?
i) Using two power semiconductors and two diodes per phase
ii) (n ± 1) power switching devices and (n + 1) diodes per phase
iii) Phase windings using Bifilar wires
iv) Dump C- converter
v) Split power supply converter
2. Why rotor position sensor is essential for the operation of switched reluctance
motor?
It is normally necessary to use a rotor position sensor for commutation and speed feed back.
The turning ON and OFF operation of the various devices of power semiconductor switching
circuit are influenced by signals obtained from rotor position sensor.
3. List are the disadvantages of a switched reluctance motor?
1. Stator phase winding should be capable of carrying magnetizing current.
2. For high speed operation developed torque has undesirable ripples is a est1t develops
undesirable noises (or) acoustic noises.
3. For high speed current wave form has undesirable harmonics to suppress this effect large
size capacitor is to be connected.
4. It requires position sensors.
4. What are the advantages of switched reluctance motor?
1. Construction is simple and robust.
2, Rotor carries no windings, no slip rings, no brushes, less maintenance.
3. There is no permanent magnet.
4. Ventilating system is simpler as losses takes place mostly in the stator.
5. Power semi conductor switching circuitry is simpler
6. No shoot through fault likely to happen power short circuits,
7. Developed torque doesn’t depends upon the polarity of current in the phase
Winding.
8. The operation of the machine can be easily change from motoring mode to generating
mode by varying the region of conduction.
9. It is possible to get very high speed.
10. Depending upon the requirement T-w characteristics can be achieved.
11. It is the self starting machine.
12. Energy stored in the phase winding is fed back to the supply through the feedback diodes
during off period.
5. Draw the general torque - speed characteristics of switched reluctance motor.
6. What arc the applications of SRM
1. Washing machines
2. Vacuum cleaners
3. Fans
4. Future auto mobile applications
5. Robotics control applications
7. What is Switched Reluctance Motor?
The switched reluctance motor is a double salient, singly-excited motor. This means that it
has salient pole on both the rotor and the stator, but only one member crries windings. The
rotor has no windings, magnets (or) cage winding. It works on vai1é reluctance principle.
9, What are the two types of current control techniques?
1. Hysteresis type control
2. PWM type control
10. What is meant by energy ratio?
This energy ratio cannot be called as efficiency. As the
stored energy R is not wasted as a loss but it is feedback to the source through feed back
diodes..
11. Draw the simple block diagram of SRM.
12. Draw the circuit of PWM type current control.
13. What is phase windings?
Stator poles carrying field coils. The field coils of opposite poles are connected in series such
that mmf’s are additive and they are called “Phase windings” of SRM.
14. What are the essential difference between SRM and Stepper Motor?
SRM Stepper Motor
1. SRM is designed for continuous
rotation.
2. SRM requires a rotor-position
sensor.
Stepper motor is designed to rotate in
step by step rotation,
It does not require rotor-position
sensor.
15. Write dtnn the torque equation for a switched reluctance motor drive.
16. Sketch the C-dump converter circuit for switched reluctance motor.
17 What is hysteresis current control?
This type of current controller maintains a more or less constant current throughout the
conduction period in each phase. This controller is called hysteresis type controller.
18. Define Chopping and single pulse mode of operation of SRM.
Chopping Mode
In this mode, also called low-speed mode, each phase winding gets excited for a
Period which is sufficiently long.
Single-pulse mode
In single-pulse mode, also called high-speed mode, the current rise is within limits
during the small time interval of each phase excitation.
UNIT IV
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of brushless de motor drives?
Advantages
1. There is no field winding so that field copper loss is neglected.
2. Length of the motor is very small as there is no mechanical commutator, so that
size becomes very small.
3. Better ventilation because of armature accommodated in the stator.
4, Regenerative braking is possible.
5. Speed can be easily controllable.
6. Motor can be designed for higher voltages subjected to the constraint caused by
the power semi conductor switching circuit.
7. It is possible to have very high speeds.
Disadvantages
1. Motor field cannot be controlled
2. Power at1g is restricted because of the maximum available size of permanent Magnets.
3. It requires a rotor position sensor.
4. It requires a power semi conductor switching circuit.
2. List the various permanent magnet materials.
3. Draw the magnetic circuit of 2 pole permanent magnet brushless de motor
4. What are the differences between mechanical and electronic commutators?
5. Write the torque and emf equation of square wave brushless motor.
6. Mention some applications of PMBL DC motor.
1. Power alternators
2. Automotive applications
3. Computer and Robotics applications
4. Textile and Glass industries
7. Compare conventional dc motor and PMBLDC motor.
Features Conventional DC motor PMBL DC motor
Mechanical structure
Maintenance
Winding connection
Commutation method
Detecting method
Reversing method
Field magnets on the stator
Maintenance is high
Ring connection
The simplest: Delta
connection
Mechanical contact
between brushes and
commutator
Automatically detected by
brushes
By a reverse of terminal
voltage.
Field magnets on the rotor
Low maintenance
The highest grade: Dell or
star- connected three phase
connection.
Normal: star-connected
three phase winding with
grounded neutral point or
four-phase connection. The
simplest: Two-phase
connection.
Electronic switching using
power semi conductor
devices
ie. transistors, MOSFETS.
Rotor position can be
detected by using sensor
i.e., Hall sensor; optical
encoder.
Rearranging logic
sequencer
8. Why is the PMBLDC motor called electronically commutated motor?
The PMBL DC motor is also called electronically commutated motor because the
phase windings of PMBL DC motor is energized by using power semiconductor
switching circuits, Here, the power semiconductor switching circuits act as a
commutator.
9. What are the classification of BLPM dc motor?
1. BLPM square wave motor
2. BLPM sine wave motor
10. What are the two types of BLPM SQW DC motor?
1. 180° polearc BLPM square wave motor
2. 120° polearc BLPM square wave motor
11. Name the position sensors that are used for PMBLDC motor?
1. Optical position sensor
2. Hall effect position sensor
12. What are the materials used for making Hall IC pallet?
1. Indium - antimony
2. Gallium - arsenide
13. What are the relative merits of the brushless dc motor drives?
Advantages
1. There is no field winding so that field copper loss is neglected.
2. Length of the motor is very small as there is no mechanical commutator, so that
size becomes very small.
3. Better ventilation because of armature accommodated in the stator.
4. Regenerative braking is possible.
5. Speed can be easily controllable.
6. Motor can be designed for higher voltages subjected to the constraint caused by
the power semi conductor switching circuit.
7. it is possible to have very high
14. Draw the circuit diagram of electronic commutator.
15. Compare PMBLDC motor and switched reluctance motor.
16. What is hail sensor?
A sensor is operated with half effect principle. It is called hail sensor. it is used sense the
rotor position of the BLPMDC motor.
17. What is optical sensor?
A sensor is operated with photo transistor, it is the optical sensor. it is mainly red to sense the
rotor position of the BLPMDC motor.
18. What are the types of permanent magnet DC motor?
1. PMBL square ware motor
2. PMBL sine wave motor
19. What is permanent magnet DC commutator motor?
A DC motor consists of permanent magnet in the stator and armature winding, commutator
in the rotor. This motor is called permanent magnet DC commutator motor.
UNIT V
6. What are the merits and demerits of PMSM?
Merits
i It runs at constant speed.
ii) No field winding, no field loss, better efficiency.
iii No sliding contacts. So it requires less maintenance.
Demerits
i Power factor of operation cannot be controlled as field winding cannot be controlled.
ii) It leads to losses and decreases efficiency.
8. What are assumptions made in derivation of emf equation for PMSM?
Assumptions
I. Flux density distribution in the air gap is sinusoidal.
2. Rotor rotates with an uniform angular velocity of wm (r/sec).
3. Armature winding consists of full pitched, concentrated similarly located coils of equal
number of turns.
9. Why PMSM operating in self controlled mode is known commutatorless de
motor?
Load side controller performs some what similar function as commutator in a dC
machine. The load side converter and synchronous motor combination functions similar
to a dc machine.
First, it is fed from a dc supply and secondly like a dc machine. The stator and rotc
field remain stationary with respect to each other at all speeds. Consequently.
drive consisting of load side converter and synchronous motor is known as “Commutu
less dc motor”.
Previous
Next Post »