EE 2202 Electomagnetic Theory (EMT)Anna University Important Questions 2 marks and 16 marks questions | EE2202 important questions from all 5 units for 3rd semester EEE dpt ...
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EE2202 - ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
1.State stokes theorem.
The line integral of a vector around a closed path is equal to the surface integral of the
normal component of its curl over any surface bounded by the path
H.dl = (—xH)ds
2.State coulombs law.
Coulombs law states that the force between any two point charges is directly
proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square
of the distance between them. It is directed along the line joining the two charges.
F=Q1Q2 / 4πεr
3.State Gauss law for electric fields
The total electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge
enclosed by that surface.
4.Define electric flux.
The lines of electric force is electric flux.
5.Define electric flux density.
Electric flux density is defined as electric flux per unit area.
6.Define electric field intensity.
Electric field intensity is defined as the electric force per unit positive charge.
E =F/ Q
7.Name few applications of Gauss law in electrostatics.
7.Name few applications of Gauss law in electrostatics.
Gauss law is applied to find the electric field intensity from a closed surface.e.g)Electric
field can be determined for shell, two concentric shell or cylinders etc.
8.What is a point charge?
Point charge is one whose maximum dimension is very small in comparison with any
9.Define linear charge density.
It is the charge per unit length.
10.Write poisson’s and laplace ’s equations.
Poisson ‘s eqn:
V= - ρv / ε
Laplace’ s eqn:
11.State the condition for the vector F to be solenoidal.
12. .State the condition for the vector F to be irrotational.
13.Define potential difference.
Potential difference is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge
from one point to another point in an electric field.
Potential at any point is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge
from infinity to that point in an electric field.
V=Q / 4πεr
15.Give the relation between electric field intensity and electric flux density.
16.Give the relationship between potential gradiant and electric field.
E= - —V
17.What is the physical significance of div D ?
The divergence of a vector flux density is electric flux per unit volume leaving a small
volume. This is equal to the volume charge density.
18. Define current density.
Current density is defined as the current per unit area.
J= I/A Amp/m
19.Write the point form of continuity equation and explain its significance.
—·J= - ρv / t
20.Write the expression for energy density in electrostatic field.
W=1 / 2 εE
21.Write the boundary conditions at the interface between two perfect dielectrics.
i)The tangential component of electric field is continuous i.e)Et1=Et2
ii)The normal component of electric flux density is continuous I.e)Dn1=Dn2
22.Write down the expression for capacitance between two parallel plates.
C=εA / d
23.What is meant by displacement current?
Displacement current is nothing but the current flowing through capacitor.
J= D / t
24.State point form of ohms law.
Point form of ohms law states that the field strength within a conductor is
proportional to the current density.
25 Define surface charge density.
It is the charge per surface area.
26.State amperes circuital law.
Magnetic field intensity around a closed path is equal to the current enclosed by the
27.State Biot –Savarts law.
It states that the magnetic flux density at any point due to current element is
proportional to the current element and sine of the angle between the elemental length
and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
dB=µ 0Idl sinθ / 4πr
28.Define magnetic vector potential.
It is defined as that quantity whose curl gives the magnetic flux density.
B=— x A
=µ / 4π J/r dv web/m2
29.Write down the expression for magnetic field at the centre of the circular coil.
H = I/2a.
30.Give the relation between magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity.
B =µ H
31.Write down the magnetic boundary conditions.
i) The normal components of flux density B is continuous across the boundary.
ii) The tangential component of field intensity is continuous across the boundary.
32.Give the force on a current element.
dF = BIdlsinθ
33..Define magnetic moment.
Magnetic moment is defined as the maximum torque per magnetic induction of
34.State Gauss law for magnetic field.
The total magnetic flux passing through any closed surface is equal to zero.
35.Define a wave.
If a physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at
other places at later times , the time delay being proportional to the space separation
from the first location then the group of phenomena constitutes a wave.
36. Mention the properties of uniform plane wave.
i) At every point in space ,the electric field E and magnetic field H are perpendicular
to each other.
ii)The fields vary harmonically with time and at the same frequency everywhere in
37.Write down the wave equation for E and H in free space.
H– µ 0ε0
H / t
38.Define intrinsic impedance or characteristic impedance.
It is the ratio of electric field to magnetic field.or It is the ratio of square root of
permeability to permittivity of medium.
39.Give the characteristic impedance of free space.
40.Define propagation constant.
Propagation constant is a complex number
γ =α +jβ
where α is attenuation constant
β is phase constant
γ = jωµ(σ +jωε)
41.Define skin depth
It is defined as that depth in which the wave has been attenuated to 1/e or
approximately 37% of its original value.
∆ = 1/α = 2 / jωσ
42.Define Poynting vector.
The pointing vector is defined as rate of flow of energy of a wave as it propagates.
P =E X H
43. State Poyntings Theorem.
The net power flowing out of a given volume is equal to the time rate of decrease
of the the energy stored within the volume- conduction losses.
44.Give significant physical difference between poisons and laplaces equations.
When the region contains charges poisons equation is used and when
there is no charges laplaces equation is applied.
45.Give the difficulties in FDM.
FDM is difficult to apply for problems involving irregular boundaries and non
homogenious material properties.
46.Explain the steps in finite element method.
i) Discretisation of the solution region into elements.
ii) Generation of equations for fields at each element
iii) Assembly of all elements
iv) Solution of the resulting system
47.State Maxwells fourth equation.
The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero.
48. State Maxwells Third equation
The total electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the
total charge within the volume.
49.State the principle of superposition of fields.
The total electric field at a point is the algebraic sum of the individual electric field at
50.Define ohms law at a point
Ohms law at appoint states that the field strength within a conductor is proportional
to current density.
51.Define self inductance.
Self inductance is defined as the rate of total magnetic flux linkage to the current
through the coil.
52.Define pointing vector.
The vector product of electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity at a point is
a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area at that point.
53.Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by four
orthogonal points in FDM.
54.Give the formula to find potential at a point which is surrounded by six
orthogonal points inFDM.
V0= ¼(V1+V2+V3+V4 +V5+V6)
55.State Lenz law.
Lenz’s law states that the induced emf in a circuit produces a current which opposes the
change in magnetic flux producing it.
56.What is the effect of permittivity on the force between two charges?
Increase in permittivity of the medium tends to decrease the force between two
charges and decrease in permittivity of the medium tends to increase the force between
57.State electric displacement.
The electric flux or electric displacement through a closed surface is equal to the charge
enclosed by the surface.
58.What is displacement flux density?
The electric displacement per unit area is known as electric displacement density or
electric flux density.
59.What is the significance of displacement current?
The concept of displacement current was introduced to justify the production of
magnetic field in empty space. It signifies that a changing electric field induces a
magnetic field .In empty space the conduction current is zero and the magnetic fields are
entirely due to displacement current.
60.Distinguish between conduction and displacement currents.
The current through a resistive element is termed as conduction current whereas the
current through a capacitive element is termed as displacement current.
61.Define magnetic field strength.
The magnetic field strength (H) is a vector having the same direction as magnetic flux
62.Give the formula to find the force between two parallel current carrying
F=µI I1 / 2πR
63.Give the expression for torque experienced by a current carrying loop situated in
a magnetic field.
T = IABsinθ
64What is torque on a solenoid?
T = NIABsinθ
65.Explain the conservative property of electric field.
The work done in moving a point charge around a closed path in a electric field is zero. Such a field is said to be conservative.
/ E.dl = 0
66.Write he expression for field intensity due to a toroid carrying a filamentary
H=NI / 2пR
67.What are equipotential surfaces?
An equipotential surface is a surface in which the potential energy at every point is of the
68.Define loss tangent.
Loss tangent is the ratio of the magnitude of conduction current density to displacement
cuurrent density of the medium.
Tan δ = σ / ωε
69.Defie reflection and transmission coefficients.
Reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the reflected field to that
of the incident field.
70. Define transmission coefficients.
Transmission coefficient is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the
transmitted field to that of incident field.
71.What will happen when the wave is incident obliquely over dielectric –dielectric
When a plane wave is incident obliquely on the surface of a perfect dielectric part of the
energy is transmitted and part of it is reflected .But in this case the transmitted wave will
be refracted, that is the direction of propagation is altered.
72.What is the expression for energy stored in a magnetic field?
W = ½ LI
73.What is energy density in magnetic field?
W = ½ µH
74.Distinguish between solenoid and toroid.
Solenoid is a cylindrically shaped coil consisting of a large number of closely spaced
turns of insulated wire wound usually on a non magnetic frame.
If a long slender solenoid is bent into the form of a ring and there by closed on itself it
becomes a toroid.
75.Describe what are the sources of electric field and magnetic field?
Stationary charges produce electric field that are constant in time, hence the term
electrostatics. Moving charges produce magnetic fields hence the term magnetostatics.
76.What are the significant physical differences between Poisson ‘s and laplace ‘s
Poisson ‘s and laplace ‘s equations are useful for determining the electrostatic potential
V in regions whose boundaries are known.
When the region of interest contains charges poissons equation can be used to find the
When the region is free from charge laplace equation is used to find the potential.
77.State Divergence Theorem.
The integral of the divergence of a vector over a volume v is equal to the surface integral
o f the normal component of the vector over the surface bounded by the volume.
78.Give the expression for electric field intensity due to a single shell of charge
E = Q / 4πεr2
79.Give the expression for potential between two spherical shells
V= 1/ 4π (Q1/a – Q2/b)
80.Define electric dipole.
Electric dipole is nothing but two equal and opposite point charges separated by a finite
81.What is electrostatic force?
The force between any two particles due to existing charges is known as electrostatic
force, repulsive for like and attractive for unlike.
The divergence of a vector F at any point is defined as the limit of its surface integral per
unit volume as the volume enclosed by the surface around the point shrinks to zero.
83.How is electric energy stored in a capacitor?
In a capacitor, the work done in charging a capacitor is stored in the form of electric
84.What are dielectrics?
Dielectrics are materials that may not conduct electricity through it but on applying
electric field induced charges are produced on its faces .The valence electron in atoms of
a dielectric are tightly bound to their nucleus.
85.What is a capacitor?
A capacitor is an electrical device composed of two conductors which are separated
through a dielectric medium and which can store equal and opposite charges ,independent
of whether other conductors in the system are charged or not.
86.Define dielectric strength.
The dielectric strength of a dielectric is defined as the maximum value of electric field
that can b applied to the dielectric without its electric breakdown.
87.What meaning would you give to the capacitance of a single conductor?
A single conductor also possess capacitance. It is a capacitor whose one plate is at
88.Why water has much greater dielectric constant than mica.?
Water has a much greater dielectric constant than mica .because water ha a permanent
dipole moment, while mica does not have.
89.What is lorentz force?
Lorentz force is the force experienced by the test charge .It is maximum if the direction
of movement of charge is perpendicular to the orientation of field lines.
90.Define magnetic moment.
Magnetic moment is defined as the maximum torque on the loop per unit magnetic
The inductance of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the linking magnetic flux to the
current producing the flux.
L = NФ / I
92.What is main cause of eddy current?
The main cause of eddy current is that it produces ohmic power loss and causes local
93.How can the eddy current losses be eliminated?
The eddy current losses can be eliminated by providing laminations. It can be proved
that the total eddy current power loss decreases as the number of laminations increases.
94.What is the fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic fild
There is a fundamental difference between static electric and magnetic field lines .The
tubes of electric flux originate and terminates on charges, whereas magnetic flux tubes
95.What are uniform plane waves?
Electromagnetic waves which consist of electric and magnetic fields that are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation and are uniform in plane
perpendicular to the direction of propagation are known as uniform plane waves.
96.Write short notes on imperfect dielectrics.
A material is classified as an imperfect dielectrics for σ <<ωε, that is conduction current
density is small in magnitude compared to the displacement current density.
97.What is the significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric ?
The only significant feature of wave propagation in an imperfect dielectric compared to
that in a perfect dielectric is the attenuation undergone by the wave.
98.What is the major drawback of finite difference method?
The major drawback of finite difference method is its inability to handle curved
99.What is method of images?
The replacement of the actual problem with boundaries by an enlarged region or with
image charges but no boundaries is called the method of images.
100.When is method of images used?
Method of images is used in solving problems of one or more point charges in the
presence of boundary surfaces.
1.Find the electric field intensity of a straight uniformly charged wire of length ‘L’m
and having a linear charge density of +λ C/m at any point at a distance of ‘h’ m.
Hence deduce the expression for infinitely long conductor.
Hints: Field due to charge element is given by:
dE = λdi/ 4πξr
Ex=λ [cos α1+cosα2] /4πεh
Ey=λ [sin α1-sinα2] /4πεh
For infinitely long conductor
E = λl /
2.Derive the boundary relations for electric fields.
i)The tangential component of the electric field is continuous at the surface
.Et1 = Et2
ii)The normal component of the electric flux density is continuous if there is no surface
Dn1 = Dn2
3.Find the electric field intensity produced by a point charge distribution at
P(1,1,1)caused by four identical 3nC point charges located at P1(1,1,0)
P2(-1,1,0) P3(-1,-1,0) and P4(1,-1,0).
Find the field intensity at P by using the formula
Ep = 1/4επ[( Q1/r1p
u1p ) +(q2/r2p
www.VidyarthiPlus.in4.A circular disc of radius ‘a’ m is charged with a charge density of σC/m
electric field intensity at a point ‘h’m from the disc along its axis.
Find the field due to the tangential and normal components
Total field is given by
E =ρs /2ε [1-cos α]
5. Four positive charges of 10
C each are situated in the XY plane at points
(0,0) (0,1) (1,0) and (1,1).Find the electric field intensity and potential at
Find the field intensity at point using the formula
E = Q / 4πεr
Find the potential at point using the formula
V = Q / 4πεr
Find the field intensity at the point due to all four charges by using the superposition
6. Given a electric field E = (-6y/x
) x + 6/x y + 5 z .Find the potential difference VAB
given A(-7,2,1) and B( 4,1,2)
Find the potential using the formula v=-/E.dl and substitute the points
7.Derive an expression for potential difference between two points in an electric
The potential difference between two points r1 and r2 is
V = V1 –V2
V = Q / 4πεr1 _ Q / 4πεr 2
8.Find the magnetic flux density at a point Z on the axis of a circular loop of radius ‘a’
that carries a direct current I.
The magnetic flux density at a point due to the current element is given by
dB = µIdl / 4π r
B = µIa
9.Determine the force per meter length between two long parallel wires A and B
separated by 5cm in air and carrying currents of 40A in the same direction.
Calculate the force per metre length using the formula
F/L = µI1I2 / 2πd
In the same direction force is attractive.
10.Derive an expression for magnetic vector potential.
magnetic vector potential is
A = µ / 4π ///J / r dv
11.Derive the magnetic boundary relations.
i)The tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across the boundary
.Ht1 = Ht2
ii)The normal component of the magnetic flux density is continuous across the boundary
Dn1 = Dn2
12.Find the magnetic field intensity at a distance ‘h’m above an infinite straight wire
carrying a steady current I.
The magnetic flux density is calculated starting from Biot savarts law.
The magnetic flux density at any point due to aninfinite long conductor is given by
B = µI / 2πd
13.Two conducting concentric spherical shells with radii a and b are at potentials V0
and 0 respectively. Determine the capacitance of the capacitor.
Derive the capacitance between concentric spheres using the formula
C = Q /V
= 4πε [ ab /(b-a) ]
14State and derive an expression for Poyntings theorem.
The net power flowing out of a given volume v is equal to the time rate of decrease of the
energy stored within the volume minus the conduction losses.
15.Find the forces /length between two long straight parallel conductors carrying a
current of 10A in the same direction. A distance of 0.2m separates the conductors.
Also find the force/length when the conductors carry currents in opposite directions.
Calculate the force per metre length using the formula
F/L = µI1I2 / 2πd
In opposite direction force is repulsive
16 Derive an expression for torque acting on a loop.
:When a current loop is placed parallel to a magnetic field forces act on the loop that
tends to rotate the tangential force times the radial distance at which it acts is
calledtorque or mechanicl moment of the loop.
T = m X B
17.Derive an expression for energy and energy density in a electric field.
Energy density = εE
18. .Derive an expression for energy and energy density in a magnetic field.
Energy density = µH
19.Derive all the maxwells equations.
i)Maxwells equation from electric Gauss law.
ii) Maxwells equation from magnetic Gauss law.
iii)Maxwells equation from Amperes law.
iv) Maxwells equation from Faradays law.
20.Derive an expression for displacement, conduction current densities. Also obtain an
expression for continuity current relations
Displacement current density Jd = εδE/δt
Conduction current density Jcond = σE
21.Derive the general Electromagnetic wave equation.
Starting from the maxwells equation from Faradays law and Amperes law derive the
E - µ σ(δ E/ δt )-µε (δ2
22.Briefly explain reflection by a perfect dielectric when a wave is incident normally on a
perfect dielectric and derive expression for reflection coefficient.
Hints:When a plane electromagnetic wave is incident on the surface of aperfect dielectric part
of the energy is transmitted and part of it is reflected.
Er / Ei = ( 2 – 1) /( 2 + 1)
23. Briefly explain reflection by a perfect dielectric when a wave is incident normally on
a perfect conductor.
Hints:When the plane wave is incident normally upon the surface of a perfect conductor the
wave is entirely reflected. Since there can be no loss within a perfect conductor none of
the energy is absorbed.
E (x,t) = 2Ei sinβx sinω t
24. Derive the relation between field theory and circuit theory for an RLC series circuit.
Starting from field theory erquation for a series RLC circuit derive the circuit equation
V= IR + L dI/dt +(1 /C) / Idt
25.State and explain Faradays and Lenzs law of induction and derive maxwells equation.
The total emf induced in a circuit is equal to the time rate of decrease of the total
magnetic flux linking the circuit.
˘ X E = -δB/ δt
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