EC2201 - Electrical Engineering 2 marks with answers &16 marks for all 5 units | EC 2201 Question Bank with Answers for ECE -3rd Semester ..
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EC2201 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
TWO MARK QUESTION AND ANSWERS
1. What is prime mover?
The basic source of mechanical power which drives the armature of
the generator is called prime mover.
What are the essential parts of a d.c generator?
1. Magnetic frame or yoke 2. Poles 3. Armature 4. Commutator, pole shoes,
armature windings, interpoles 5. Brushes, bearings and shaft.
2. Give the materials used in machine manufacturing?
There are three main materials used in m/c manufacturing they are steel to
conduct magnetic flux copper to conduct electric current insulation.
3. What are factors on which hysteresis loss?
It depends on magnetic flux density, frequency & volume of the material.
4. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?
When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization, two kinds of
power losses occur on it. Hysteresis and eddy current losses are called as
core loss. It is important in determining heating, temperature rise, rating &
efficiency of transformers, machines & other A.C run magnetic devices.
5. What is eddy current loss?
When a magnetic core carries a time varying flux, voltages are induced in all
possible path enclosing flux. Resulting is the production of circulating flux in
core. These circulating current do no useful work are known as eddy current and
have power loss known as eddy current loss.
6. How hysteresis and eddy current losses are minimized?
Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon
steel & steel alloys with low hysteresis co-efficient and electrical resistivity. Eddy
current losses are minimized by laminating the core.
7. How will you find the direction of emf using Fleming‟s right hand rule?
The thumb, forefinger & middle finger of right hand are held so that
these fingers are mutually perpendicular to each other, then forefinger gives the
direction of the lines of flux, thumb gives the direction of the relative motion of
conductor and middle finger gives the direction of the emf induced.
8. How will you find the direction of force produced using Fleming‟s left hand
The thumb, forefinger & middle finger of left hand are held so that these
fingers are mutually perpendicular to each other, then forefinger gives the
direction of magnetic field, middle finger gives the direction of the current and
thumb gives the direction of the force experienced by the conductor.
9. What is the purpose of yoke in d.c machine?
1. It acts as a protecting cover for the whole machine and provides
mechanical support for the poles.
2. It carries magnetic flux produced by the poles
10. What are the types of armature winding?
1. Lap winding, A=P,
2. Wave winding, A=2.
11. How are armature windings are classified based on placement of coil inside
the armature slots?
Single and double layer winding.
12. Write down the emf equation for d.c.generator?
p---------no of poles
Z---------Total no of conductor
Ф---------flux per pole
N---------speed in rpm.
13. Why the armature core in d.c machines is constructed with laminated
instead of solid steel sheets?
Lamination highly reduces the eddy current loss and steel sheets provide low
reluctance path to magnetic field.
14. Why commutator is employed in d.c.machines?
Conduct electricity between rotating armature and fixed brushes, convert
alternating emf into unidirectional emf(mechanical rectifier).
15. Distinguish between shunt and series field coil construction?
Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small section and have more no of
turns. Series field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have
less no of turns.
16. How does d.c. motor differ from d.c. generator in construction?
Generators are normally placed in closed room and accessed by skilled
operators only. Therefore on ventilation point of view they may be
constructed with large opening in the frame. Motors have to be installed right
in the place of use which may have dust, dampness, inflammable gases,
chemical etc. to protect the motors against these elements the motor frames
are used partially closed or totally closed or flame proof.
17. How will you change the direction of rotation of d.c.motor?
Either the field direction or direction of current through armature conductor is
18. What is back emf in d.c. motor?
As the motor armature rotates, the system of conductor come across alternate
north and south pole magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors.
The direction of the emf induced in the conductor is in opposite to current. As
this emf always opposes the flow of current in motor operation it is called as
19. What is the function of no-voltage release coil in d.c. motor starter?
As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through
the NVR coil produce enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the
starter handle in ON position against spring force. When the supply voltage fails
or becomes lower than a prescribed value then electromagnet may not
have enough force to retain so handle will come back to OFF position due to
spring force automatically.
20. Enumerate the factors on which speed of a d.c.motor depends?
N= (V-IaRa)/Ф so speed depends on voltage applied to armature, flux per pole,
resistance of armature.
21. Under what circumstances does a dc shunt generator fails to generate?
Absence of residual flux, initial flux setup by field may be opposite in
direction to residual flux, shunt field circuit resistance may be higher
than its critical field resistance, load circuit resistance may be less than its
critical load resistance.
22. Define critical field resistance of dc shunt generator?
Critical field resistance is defined as the resistance of the field circuit which will
cause the shunt generator just to build up its emf at a specified field.
23. Why is the emf not zero when the field current is reduced to zero in dc
Even after the field current is reduced to zero, the machine is left out with some
flux as residue so emf is available due to residual flux.
24. On what occasion dc generator may not have residual flux?
The generator may be put for its operation after its construction, in
previous operation, the generator would have been fully demagnetized.
25. What are the conditions to be fulfilled by for a dc shunt generator
to build back emf?
The generator should have residual flux, the field winding should be
connected in such a manner that the flux setup by field in same direction as
residual flux, the field resistance should be less than critical field resistance, load
circuit resistance should be above critical resistance.
26. Define armature reaction in dc machines?
The interaction between the main flux and armature flux cause
disturbance called as armature reaction.
27. What are two unwanted effects of armature reactions?
Cross magnetizing effect & demagnetizing effect.
28. What is the function of carbon brush used in dc generators?
The function of the carbon brush is to collect current from commutator
and supply to external load circuit and to load.
29. What is the principle of generator?
When the armature conductor cuts the magnetic flux emf is induced in the
30. What is the principle of motor?
When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experiences a
force tending to move it.
31. What are different methods of speed control in D.C shunt motor?
1. Armature control
2. Flux or field control
3. Applied voltage control
32. When is a four point DC starter required in DC motors?
A four point DC starter is required for dc motor under field control
33. If speed is decreased in a dc motor, what happens to the back emf
decreases and armature current?
If speed is decreased in a dc motor, the back emf decreases and armature
34. How does a series motor develop high starting torque?
A dc series motor is always started with some load. Therefore the motor
armature current increases. Due to this, series motor develops high starting
35. What is the necessity of starter in dc motors?
When a dc motor is directly switched on, at the time of starting, the motor back
emf is zero. Due to this, the armature current is very high. Due to the very high
current, the motor gets damaged. To reduce the starting current of the motor a
starter is used.
36. Mention the types of braking of dc motor?
1. Regenerative braking
2. Dynamic braking
37. What are the losses in dc motor?
1. Copper losses
2. Iron losses
3. Mechanical losses
38. Name any 2 non-loading method of testing dc machines?
1. Swinburne‟s test
2. Hopkinson test
39. Define a transformer?
A transformer is a static device which changes the alternating voltage from one
level to another.
40. What is the turns ratio and transformer ratio of transformer?
Turns ratio = N2/ N1
Transformer = E2/E1 = I1/ I2 =K
41. Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers?
In core type, the windings surround the core considerably and in shell type the
core surrounds the windings i.e winding is placed inside the core.
42. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformer?
In order to minimise eddy current loss.
43. Give the emf equation of a transformer and define each term?
Emf induced in primary coil E1= 4.44fФmN1 volt emf induced in
Coil E2 =4.44 fФmN2.
f--------freq of AC input
Ф-----------maximum value of flux in the core
N1, N2---------Number of primary & secondary turns.
44. Does transformer draw any current when secondary is open? Why?
Yes, it(primary) will draw the current from the main supply in order to
magnetize the core and to supply for iron and copper losses on no load. There
will not be any current in the secondary since secondary is open.
45. Define voltage regulation of a transformer?
When a transformer is loaded with a constant primary voltage, the
decreases for lagging PF load, and increases for leading PF load because
of its internal resistance and leakage reactance. The change in secondary
terminal voltage from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of no
load or full load voltage is termed as regulation.
%regulation down=(V2noload- V2full load)*100/ V2noload,
46. Define all day efficiency of a transformer?
It is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain
period, usually a day of 24 hrs. all day efficiency=output in kWh/input in kWh for
47. Why transformers are rated in kVA?
Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence
total losses depend on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of
transformers are in kVA and not in kW.
48. What determines the thickness of the lamination or stampings?
2. Iron loss
49. What are the typical uses of auto transformer?
1. To give small boost to a distribution cable to correct for the
2. As induction motor starter.
50. What are the applications of step-up & step-down transformer?
Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated
voltage will be either 11kV. This voltage (11kV) is stepped up to 110kV or 220kV
or 400kV and transmitted through transmission lines (simply called as sending
Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are stepped
down to 11kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3phase 400V by means of a
distribution transformer and made available at consumer premises. The
transformers used at generating stations are called power transformers.
51. How transformers are classified according to their construction?
1. Core type 2.shell type. In core type, the winding (primary and
secondary) surround the core and in shell type, the core surround the winding.
52. Explain on the material used for core construction?
The core is constructed by sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a
continuous magnetic path with minimum of air gap included. The steel used is
of high silicon content sometimes heat treated to produce a high permeability
and a low hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux densities. The eddy
current loss is minimized by laminating the core, the laminations being
used from each other by light coat of core-plate vanish or by oxide layer on the
surface. The thickness of lamination varies from 0.35mm for a frequency
of 50Hz and 0.5mm for a frequency of 25Hz.
53. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
With a change in frequency, iron and copper loss, regulation, efficiency &
heating varies so the operation of transformer is highly affected.
54. What is the angle by which no-load current will lag the ideal applied voltage?
In an ideal transformer, there are no copper & core loss i.e. loss free core.
The no load current is only magnetizing current therefore the no load current
lags behind by angle 900. However the winding possess resistance and leakage
reactance and therefore the no load current lags the applied voltage slightly less
55. List the arrangement of stepped core arrangement in a transformer?
1. To reduce the space effectively
2. To obtain reduce length of mean turn of the winding
3. To reduce I^2R loss.
56. Why are breathers used in transformers?
Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture and thereby not
allowing it to pass on to the transformer oil. Also to permit the oil inside the
tank to expand and contract as its temperature increases and decreases.
57. What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer?
1. It provides good insulation
58. Can the voltage regulation go –ive? If so under what condition?
Yes, if the load has leading PF.
59. Distinguish power transformers & distribution transformers?
Power transformers have very high rating in the order of MVA. They are used in
generating and receiving stations. Sophisticated controls are required. Voltage
ranges will be very high. Distribution transformers are used in receiving side.
Voltage levels will be medium. Power ranging will be small in order of kVA.
Complicated controls are not needed.
60. Name the factors on which hysteresis loss depends?
1. Frequency 2. Volume of the core 3. Maximum flux density
61. Why the open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage?
The open circuit on a transformer is conducted at a rated voltage because core
loss depends upon the voltage. This open circuit test gives only core loss or iron
loss of the transformer.
62. What is the purpose of providing Taps in transformer and where
these are provided?
In order to attain the required voltage, taps are provided, normally at
high voltages side(low current).
63. What are the necessary tests to determine the equivalent circuit of the
1. Open circuit test
2. Short circuit test
64. Define regulation and efficiency of the transformer?
The regulation of the transformer is defined as the reduction in magnitude of the
terminal voltage due to load, with respect to the no-load terminal voltage.
% regulation = (V2 on no-load- V2 when loaded/ V2 on no-load)x 100
Transformer efficiency ƞ= (output power/input power)x 100
65. What are the 2 types of 3phase induction motor?
Squirrel cage and slip ring induction motor.
66. Write two extra features of slip ring induction motor?
Rotor has 3-phase winding. Extra resistance can be added in rotor circuit for
improving PF with the help of three slip rings.
67. Why an induction motor is called as rotating transformer?
The rotor receives same electrical power in exactly the same way as the
secondary of a two winding transformer receiving its power from primary.
That is why induction motor is called as rotating transformer.
68. Why an induction motor never runs at its synchronous speed?
If the motor runs at sync. speed then there would be no relative speed between
the two, hence no rotor emf, so no rotor current, then no rotor torque to
69. What are slip rings?
The slip rings are made of copper alloys and are fixed around the shaft
insulating it. Through these slip rings and brushes rotor winding can be
connected to external circuit.
70. What are the advantages of cage motor?
Since the rotor have low resistance, the copper loss is low and efficiency
is very high. On account of simple construction of rotor it is mechanically robust,
initial cost is less, maintenance cost is less, simple starting arrangement.
71. Give the condition for maximum torque for 3phase induction motor,
when it is
The rotor resistance and reactance should be same for max.torque i.e.
72. List out the method for speed control of 3phase cage type induction motor?
By changing supply frequency
By changing no of poles
By operating the two motors in cascade
73. Name the two winding of single phase induction motor?
Running and starting winding.
74. What are methods available for making single phase induction motor a self
By slitting the single phase, by providing shading coil in the poles.
75. What is the function of capacitor in single phase induction motor?
To make phase difference between starting and running winding, to improve
PF and to get more torque.
76. State any 4 use of single phase induction motor?
Fans, wet grinders, vacuum cleaner, small pumps, compressors, drills.
77. What kind of motors used in ceiling fan and wet grinders?
Ceiling fan - Capacitor start and capacitor run single phase induction motor,
wet grinders - Capacitor start capacitor run single phase induction motor.
78. What is the application of shaded pole induction motor?
Because of its small starting torque, it is generally used for small toys,
instruments, hair driers, ventilators.etc.
79. In which direction a shaded pole motor runs?
The rotor starts rotation in the direction from unshaded part to the shaded part.
80. Why single phase induction motors have low PF?
The current through the running winding lags behind the supply voltage by
large angle so only single phase induction motor have low PF.
81. Differentiate between “capacitor start” & “Capacitor start capacitor run”
single Phase induction motor (IM)?
Capacitor start – capacitor run is connected series with starting winding, but it
will be disconnected from supply when motor pick up its speed. Capacitor
start capacitor run- starting winding and capacitor will not be disconnected
from supply even though motor pickup its speed.
82. Explain why single phase induction motor is not a self starting one?
When motor fed supply from single phase, its stator winding produces an
alternating flux, which doesn‟t develops any torque.
83. Define slip in an IM?
The slip of an IM is defined as the ratio of difference between sync. speed (Ns)
and rotor speed (N) to the sync. speed.
s= (Ns – N)/ Ns
84. Define slip speed in an IM?
The slip speed is defined as the difference in speed between the rotating
magnetic field produced by stator (Ns) and rotor speed (N).
85. What is the speed of the rotor field in space?
The speed of the rotor field in space is speed of rotating field.
86. What is sync. speed in 3-phase IM?
Ns = 120f/p
Where f- supply frequency
P- No of poles on the stator.
87. List the various methods of speed control of 3 phase IM?
Types of stator side control
1. Stator voltage control
2. Stator frequency control
3. v/f control
4. pole changing method
88. In which type of motor can resistance be introduced in the rotor circuit?
What is the effect of it?
Slip ring IM.
1. starting torque increased
2. starting current decreased
3. motor speed can be controlled
89. Why the slots on the IM are usually skewed?
In order to obtain a uniform torque, reduce the magnetic locking of the stator
and rotor and reduce the magnetic humming noise while running.
90. What are the types of poly phase IM?
1. Squirrel cage IM
2. Slip ring IM
91. What will be the effect when stator voltage and freq of a IM are reduced
1. Motor speed increases
2. Maximum torque is constant
92. What is slip power recovery scheme?
Slip power can be returned to the supply source and can be used to supply an
additionalmotor which is mechanically coupled to the main rotor. This type of
drive is known as slip power recovery system and improves overall efficiency of
Synchronous and Special electrical machines
93. What are the principal advantages of rotating field type construction?
Relatively small amount of power required for field system can easily
supplied to rotating system using slip rings and brushes, more space is available
in the stator part of the machine to provide more insulation, it is easy to provide
cooling system, stationary system of conductors can easily be braced to prevent
94. What are the advantages of salient type pole construction used in
They allow better ventilation, the pole faces are so shaped radial air gap length
increases from pole center to pole tips so flux distortion in air gap is sinusoidal
so emf is also sinusoidal.
95. Which type of sync. generators are used in hydroelectric plants and why?
As the speed of operation is low, for hydro turbines used in hydroelectric
plants, salient pole type sync. generator is used because it allows better
ventilation also better than smooth cylindrical type rotor
96. Why are alternators rated in KVA and not in KW?
As load increases I2R loss also increases, as the current is directly
related to apparent power delivered by generator, the alternator has only
their apparent power in VA/KVA/MVA as their power rating.
97. Why the sync. impedance method of estimating voltage regulation is is
considered as pessimistic method?
Compared to other method, the value of voltage regulation obtained by this
method is always higher than the actual value so it is called as pessimistic
98. Why MMF method of estimating voltage regulation is considered as
Compared to EMF method, MMF method involves more no. of complex
calculation steps. Further the OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once
while predetermining the voltage regulation for each load condition. Reference of
OCC takes core saturation effect. As
this method require more effort, final result is very close to actual value, hence
this method is called as optimistic method.
99. Define voltage regulation of the alternator?
It is defined as the increase in terminal voltage when full load is thrown off,
assuming field current and speed remaining the same.
% reg = [(E0 – V)/V]x100
Where E0 = no terminal voltage V = full load rated terminal voltage
100. How is arm. winding in alternators is different from those used in dc
The arm. winding of the alternator is placed in the stator, but in the case of dc
machines the arm winding is placed in the rotor.
101. What is hunting how can it be prevented?
When a sync motor is used for driving a fluctuating load, the rotor starts
oscillating about its new position of equilibrium corresponding to the new load.
This is called hunting or phase swinging. To prevent hunting dampers are
damping grids are employed.
102 what are different torques of a sync motor?
1. Starting torque
2. Running torque
3. Pull-in torque
4. Pull-out torque
103. define step angle?
It is defined as angle through which the stepper motor shaft rotates for each
command pulse. It is denoted as β, i)β=[(Ns-Nr)/ Ns.Nr]x360o
Where Ns = no. of stator poles or stator teeth
Nr = no. of rotor poles or rotor teeth
ii) β = 3600/mNr
Where m= no. of stator poles
104. What are different types of stepper motor?
1. Variable reluctance (VR) motor
2. Permanent magnet (PM) stepper motor
3. Hybrid stepper motor
105. What is the advantage in using stepper motor?
1. it can drive open loop without feedback
2. it requires little or no maintenance.
106. Give the applications of stepper motor?
2. Computer peripherals
3. Facsimile machine
107. What are the adv. of reluctance m/c?
1. Motor speed is constant
2. Simple construction
Transmissions and Distribution
108. What are the principle divisions of an electric motor?
1. Generating station
2. Transmission systems
3. Distribution systems
109. List out the types of power generating systems?
1. Steam thermal power station
2. Nuclear power station
3. Hydro electric power station
4. Diesel power station
110. What is the adv. of EHVDC system?
1. Requires less space compared to ac for same voltage rating and size
3. cheaper for long distance transmission.
4. There is no inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge problems.
5. There is no skin effect. Therefore entire cross section of the conductor is used.
111. What are the desirable properties of insulators?
1. High mechanical strength to withstand conductor load
2. High electrical strength to prevent leakage current.
3. It should not have any pores in air spaces.
112. List out the types of overhead line insulators?
1. Pin type
2. Suspension type
3. Strain type
113. What are the adv and dis adv of under ground cables?
1. Low vtg drop
2. Low faults
3. Good appearance
4. Less damage through lightening and storms.
1. High installation cost
2. Insulation problems at high voltage
114. How cables are classified according to the voltage?
Low tension cable – upto 1000V
High tension cable – upto 11kV
Super tension cable – from 22kV to 33kV
Extra high tension cable – from 33kV to 66kV
Extra super tension cable – above 132kV
115. What is the voltage level of sub-transmission system?
33kV or 66kV
116. What are the major electrical equipments used in the power system?
Generator, power transformer, bus bars, circuit breakers, switching circuits
117. What is the function of circuit breaker in power system ?
It is one of the protective equipments in substation. The main function of the CB
is to open or close a circuit under normal as well as fault conditions.
118. What is the sub-transmission network?
The primary transmission line goes upto the receiving station. The voltage is
stepped down to 33kV by step-down transformer i.e. 132/33kV. This 33kV is
transmitted by 3-phase, 3-wire, overhead system. It is a secondary
119. Name few insulating materials used in cables.
Rubber, vulcanised India rubber, what are the major impregnated paper, PVC,
120. what are the major sources of energy used in the power system?
121. What is the level of voltage for a) generation b) transmission c)distribution
a) 11kV b) 132kV or 440kV c) 440V or 230 V
122. What are the different types of HVDC links?
1. Monopolar link
2. Bipolar link
3. Homopolar link
123. What is meant by distribution system?
The part of power system which distributes electric power for local use is known
as distribution system.
124. What are the parts of distribution system?
3. Service mains
125. What are the different types of distributions?
i) primary distribution system ii) secondary distribution system
b) DC distribution
i)2-wire dc system ii) 3-wire dc system
126. Define sub station
There are number of transformers and switching stations built between
generating stations and the ultimate consumers. These are generally known as
127. What are the classifications of substation based on?
1. Service requirement
2. Physical features
128. Compare EHVAC with EHVDC systems?
1. Corona loss and radio interference will be more in EHVAC whereas less in
2. EHVAC requires three conductors whereas EHVDC requires only two
3. Skin effect will occur in EHVAC whereas skin effect is absent in EHVDC
4. Installation cost of EHVAC is less where cost is more in EHVDC
5. It has inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge problems
whereas EHVDC does not has these problems.
Unit – I
1. What is the principle on which d.c.generator works? List out the main parts of
it. Write details about the construction and function main parts of it.
2. Describe the working principle of d.c generator and d.c motor with neat
3. Write the expression for emf generated in d.c.machine?
4. Describe the different types of d.c.generators and discuss about its
5. Draw the circuit models of d.c. generator and write relationship among the
currents and voltage.
6. Derive the torque equation of dc motors?
7. Draw the mechanical characteristics of (N-T) of dc shunt and series of motors
8. Why series motors cannot be started without load.
9. Draw the diagram of three point starter and identified the various parts.
10. Describe the brake test on dc motors to determine the efficiency
characteristics of dc motors.
11. Explain the Swinburne test to predetermine the efficiency of dc machine.
12. What is Transformers? Define step up and step down Transformer?
13. Classify the transformers according to the construction?
14. Describe the construction of single phase Transformer?
15. Discuss about the working principle of transformers.
16. Derive the equation for the emf induced in a transformer?
17. What is an ideal transformer?
18. Draw and explain the no load vector diagram of ideal transformers and
19. What are the two components of transformers no load current?
20. Explain the behaviour of a transformer on load with relevant to phasor
21. Derive the equivalent circuit of single phase two winding transformers?
22. Explain the OC and SC test on single phase transformers. Develop the
from the above tests?
23. Draw the phasor diagram and explain the operation of practical transformer
24. Define voltage regulation. Draw the phasor diagram for lagging power factor
and determine voltage regulation.
25. Explain the construction details of 3-phase IM and write its advantages.
26. With neat sketches discuss about the two types of 3-phase IM.
27. Derive the torque developed in 3-phase IM
28. Draw and explain the torque-slip characteristics of a 3-phase IM.
29. Draw and explain the power flow diagram of a 3-phase IM.
30. Develop a equivalent circuit for a 3-phase IM.
31. Explain about the different types of starters in a 3-phase IM and discuss
about its operation.
32. Discuss the various methods of speed control in a 3-phase IM.
Synchronous and special electrical machines
33. Derive an expression for the induced emf of an alternator
34. Explain the emf method to determine the voltage regulation of alternators.
35. Define voltage regulation. Name two methods used to determine voltage
regulation of alternators.
36. Explain the construction and working principle of sync motor. Give the
reasons for making two different types of rotors.
37. What are the advantages of having stationary armature winding in 3 phase
synchronous generator? Mention some special features of sync machine.
38. Write short notes on a) reluctance motor b) stepper motor c) hysteresis
39. Explain in detail the different modes of operation of stepper motor. Mention
some applications of stepper motor.
40. Explain the construction, working principle and applications of following
special machines a) reluctance motor b) stepper motor c) hysteresis motor.
41. Explain the principle of operation of permanent magnet stepper motor.
Transmission and Distribution
42. Draw the schematic diagram of an electric power system. Briefly explain the
43. State the EHV transmission systems with the salient features.
44. Discuss about the types of cables used in power systems.
45. What do you meant by one line diagram in electric power system?
46. Explain in detail various types of insulators and their applications to power
47. Write short notes on a) radial distribution system b) insulating materials for
cables c) pole mounted sub-station
48. Where is sub-station located .explain the classifications of the sub-station.?
49. Explain the connection schemes of distribution system.
50. What is the function of circuit breaker in power system?