Bio Medical Instrumentation Question paper 2012 Anna University Chennai for B.E Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering ...
Posted by R.Anirudhan
Anna University (Regulation 2010-2014)
Subject: BIO MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Code: EI2301
Branch : ICE Semester: V
Duration: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100
Answer all questions
PART A (10*2=20)
- What is a Resting Potential?
Resting Potential At rest the cell membrane is polarized maintaining a negative interior charge of -70mv. This is called the electrical gradient. There is about ten times more sodium (Na+) on the outside and twenty times more potassium (K+) on the inside. This is called the concentration gradient.
- State how temperature is measured with FibreOptics.
- Give the lead systems for ECG Measurements.
Bipolar limb leads (frontal plane):
Lead I: RA (-) to LA (+) (Right Left, or lateral)
Lead II: RA (-) to LF (+) (Superior Inferior)
Lead III: LA (-) to LF (+) (Superior Inferior)
Augmented unipolar limb leads (frontal plane):
Lead aVR: RA (+) to [LA & LF] (-) (Rightward)
Lead aVL: LA (+) to [RA & LF] (-) (Leftward)
Lead aVF: LF (+) to [RA & LA] (-) (Inferior)
Unipolar (+) chest leads (horizontal plane):
Leads V1, V2, V3: (Posterior Anterior)
Leads V4, V5, V6:(Right Left, or lateral)
- Draw and explain Einthoven Triangle.
- State the normal PH value of arterial blood and venous blood.
- State the different types of Bio-telemetry systems.
Single & Mutli Channel
- What is spin-spin relaxation time, T 2?
Spin-spin relaxation time, known as T2, is a time constant in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is named in contrast to T1, the spin-lattice relaxation time.
- What are the different types of oxygenators?
- What is lithotripsy?
Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder).
PART B (5*16=80)
11. a) i) Describe the generation and features of action potential.
ii) Explain the function of human respiratory system.
Ref Set 3
b) Explain in detail the principal and working of any two passive transducers in
- a) i)Draw a buffer amplifier circuit and explain its working.
ii) Explain the working of chopper amplifier.
One classic use for a chopper circuit and where the term is still in use is in chopper amplifiers. These are DC amplifiers. Some types of signal that need amplifying can be so small that an incredibly high gain is required, but very high gain DC amplifiers are much harder to build with low offset and 1/f noise, and reasonable stability and bandwidth. It's much easier to build an AC amplifier instead. A chopper circuit is used to break up the input signal so that it can be processed as if it were an AC signal, then integrated back to a DC signal at the output. In this way, extremely small DC signals can be amplified. This approach is often used in electronic instrumentation where stability and accuracy are essential; for example, it is possible using these techniques to construct pico-voltmeters and Hall sensors.
b) Explain recording setup of ECG machine with a neat diagram, giving a detailed description of its components.
13. a) With suitable figure explain how PH, PCO2,PO2 are measured
Ref Model 2
b) Discuss Heart sounds. Explain how they can be measured and also explain how it is used in diagnosis.
Ref Model 2
14. a) Explain the principle and working of CT scanning system.
Ref Model 2
b) Explain Ultrasonography and modes with neat diagrams.
Ref Model 2
15. a) What is meant by defibrillator? Give the different types of defibrillator. With block diagram explain
Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator. This depolarizes a critical mass of the heart muscle, terminates the arrhythmia, and allows normal sinus rhythm to be reestablished by the body's natural pacemaker, in the sinoatrial node of the heart. Defibrillators can be external, transvenous, or implanted, depending on the type of device used or needed. Some external units, known as automated external defibrillators (AEDs), automate the diagnosis of treatable rhythms, meaning that lay responders or bystanders are able to use them successfully with little, or in some cases no training at all.
b) Describe the Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis with suitable diagram.
Ref Set 3