M.E. APPLIED ELECTRONICS- Affliated Institutions ,Anna University Chennai 600 025 Regulation - 2009 ,Curriculum I TO IV Semester (FULL TIME) ...

M.E. APPLIED ELECTRONICS- Affliated Institutions ,Anna University Chennai  600 025 Regulation - 2009 ,Curriculum I TO IV Semester (FULL TIME)

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AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS
ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI : : CHENNAI 600 025
REGULATIONS - 2009
CURRICULUM I TO IV SEMESTERS (FULL TIME)
M.E. APPLIED ELECTRONICS
SEMESTER I
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 MA9226 Applied Mathematics for Electronics Engineers 3 1 0 4
2 AP9211 Advanced Digital Signal Processing 3 0 0 3
3 AP9212 Advanced Digital System Design 3 0 0 3
4 VL9212 VLSI Design Techniques 3 0 0 3
5 AP9213 Advanced Microprocessors and Micro Controllers 3 0 0 3
E1 Elective I 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
6 AP9217 Electronics Design Lab I 0 0 4 2
TOTAL 18 1 4 21
SEMESTER II
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 AP9221 Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits 3 0 0 3
2 AP9222 Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing 3 0 0 3
3 AP9223 Digital Control Engineering 3 0 0 3
4 AP9224 Embedded Systems 3 0 0 3
5 E2 Elective II 3 0 0 3
6 E3 Elective III 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
7 AP9227 Electronic Design Lab II 0 0 4 2
TOTAL 18 0 4 20
SEMESTER III
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 E4 Elective IV 3 0 0 3
2 E5 Elective V 3 0 0 3
3 E6 Elective VI 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
4 AP9234 Project Work (Phase I) 0 0 12 6
TOTAL 9 0 12 15
1
SEMESTER IV
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
PRACTICAL
1 AP9241 Project Work (Phase II) 0 0 24 12
TOTAL 0 0 24 12
Total no.of credits to be earned for the award of Degree = 68
AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS
ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI : : CHENNAI 600 025
REGULATIONS - 2009
CURRICULUM I TO VI SEMESTERS (PART TIME)
M.E. APPLIED ELECTRONICS
SEMESTER I
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 MA9226 Applied Mathematics for Electronics Engineers 3 1 0 4
2 AP9212 Advanced Digital System Design 3 0 0 3
3 AP9213 Advanced Microprocessors and Microcontrollers 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
4 AP9217 Electronics Design Laboratory I 0 0 4 2
TOTAL 9 1 4 12
SEMESTER II
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 AP9221 Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits 3 0 0 3
2 AP9223 Digital Control Engineering 3 0 0 3
3 AP9224 Embedded Systems 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
4 AP9227 Electronics Design Laboratory II 0 0 4 2
2
TOTAL 9 0 4 11
SEMESTER III
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 AP9211 Advanced Digital Signal Processing 3 0 0 3
2 VL9212 VLSI Design Techniques 3 0 0 3
3 E1 Elective I 3 0 0 3
TOTAL 9 0 0 9
SEMESTER IV
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 AP9222 Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing 3 0 0 3
2 E2 Elective II 3 0 0 3
3 E3 Elective III 3 0 0 3
TOTAL 9 0 0 9
SEMESTER V
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
THEORY
1 E4 Elective IV 3 0 0 3
2 E5 Elective V 3 0 0 3
3 E6 Elective VI 3 0 0 3
PRACTICAL
4 AP9234 Project Work (phase I) 0 0 12 6
TOTAL 9 0 12 15
SEMESTER VI
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
PRACTICAL
1 AP9241 Project Work (Phase II) 0 0 24 12
TOTAL 0 0 24 12
3
LIST OF ELECTIVES
M.E. APPLIED ELECTRONICS
SL.
NO
COURSE
CODE COURSE TITLE L T P C
1 AP9251 Digital Image Processing 3 0 0 3
2 AP9252 Neural Networks and Its Applications 3 0 0 3
3 AP9253 ROBOTICS 3 0 0 3
4 VL9211 DSP Integrated Circuits 3 0 0 3
5 VL9261 ASIC Design 3 0 0 3
6 AP9260 Design and Analysis of Algorithms 3 0 0 3
7 NE9251 Reliability Engineering 3 0 0 3
8 AP9256 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility in System
Design
3 0 0 3
9 CP9212 High Performance Computer Networks 3 0 0 3
10 AP9258 RF system Design 3 0 0 3
11 VL9252 Low Power VLSI Design 3 0 0 3
12 VL9253 VLSI Signal Processing 3 0 0 3
13 VL9254 Analog VLSI Design 3 0 0 3
14 VL9221 C AD for VLSI Circuits 3 0 0 3
15 AP9259 Hardware Software Co-design 3 0 0 3
16 Special Elective 3 0 0 3
4
MA9226 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
UNIT I FUZZY LOGIC 9
Classical logic – Multivalued logics – Fuzzy propositions – Fuzzy quantifiers.
UNIT II MATRIX THEORY 9
Some important matrix factorizations – The Cholesky decomposition – QR factorization
– Least squares method – Singular value decomposition - Toeplitz matrices and some
applications.
UNIT III ONE DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIABLES 9
Random variables - Probability function – moments – moment generating
functions and their properties – Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Uniform,
Exponential, Gamma and Normal distributions – Function of a Random Variable.
UNIT IV DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING 9
Dynamic programming – Principle of optimality – Forward and backward recursion –
Applications of dynamic programming – Problem of dimensionality.
UNIT V QUEUEING MODELS 9
Poisson Process – Markovian queues – Single and Multi-server Models – Little’s formula
- Machine Interference Model – Steady State analysis – Self Service queue.
L = 45: T=15; Total: 45 PERIODS
REFERENCES:
1. George J. Klir and Yuan, B., Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, Theory and applications,
Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1997.
2. Moon, T.K., Sterling, W.C., Mathematical methods and algorithms for signal
processing, Pearson Education, 2000.
3. Richard Johnson, Miller & Freund’s Probability and Statistics for Engineers,
7th Edition, Prentice – Hall of India, Private Ltd., New Delhi (2007).
4. Taha, H.A., Operations Research, An introduction, 7th edition, Pearson education
editions, Asia, New Delhi, 2002.
5. Donald Gross and Carl M. Harris, Fundamentals of Queueing theory, 2nd edition,
John Wiley and Sons, New York (1985).
5
AP9211 ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I DISCRETE RANDOM SIGNAL PROCESSING 9
Discrete Random Processes- Ensemble Averages, Stationary processes, Bias and
Estimation, Autocovariance, Autocorrelation, Parseval’s theorem, Wiener-Khintchine
relation, White noise, Power Spectral Density, Spectral factorization, Filtering Random
Processes, Special types of Random Processes – ARMA, AR, MA – Yule-Walker
equations.
UNIT II SPECTRAL ESTIMATION 9
Estimation of spectra from finite duration signals, Nonparametric methods -
Periodogram, Modified periodogram, Bartlett, Welch and Blackman-Tukey methods,
Parametric methods – ARMA, AR and MA model based spectral estimation, Solution
using Levinson-Durbin algorithm
UNIT III LINEAR ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION 9
Linear prediction – Forward and Backward prediction, Solution of Prony’s normal
equations, Least mean-squared error criterion, Wiener filter for filtering and prediction,
FIR and IIR Wiener filters, Discrete Kalman filter
UNIT IV ADAPTIVE FILTERS 9
FIR adaptive filters – adaptive filter based on steepest descent method- Widrow-Hopf
LMS algorithm, Normalized LMS algorithm, Adaptive channel equalization, Adaptive
echo cancellation, Adaptive noise cancellation, RLS adaptive algorithm.
UNIT V MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 9
Mathematical description of change of sampling rate – Interpolation and Decimation,
Decimation by an integer factor, Interpolation by an integer factor, Sampling rate
conversion by a rational factor, Polyphase filter structures, Multistage implementation of
multirate system, Application to subband coding – Wavelet transform
TOTAL= 45
REFERENCES:
1. Monson H. Hayes, ‘Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling”, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc, Singapore, 2002
2. John J. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis, : Digital Signal Processing’, Pearson
Education, 2002
3. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, “ Digital Image Processing”, Pearson
Education Inc.,Second Edition, 2004 (For Wavelet Transform Topic)
6
AP9212 ADVANCED DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I SEQUENTIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 9
Analysis of clocked synchronous sequential circuits and modeling- State diagram, state
table, state table assignment and reduction-Design of synchronous sequential circuitsdesign
of iterative circuits-ASM chart and realization using ASM
UNIT II ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 9
Analysis of asynchronous sequential circuit – flow table reduction-races-state
assignment-transition table and problems in transition table- design of asynchronous
sequential circuit-Static, dynamic and essential hazards – data synchronizers – mixed
operating mode asynchronous circuits – designing vending machine controller
UNIT III FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND TESTABILITY ALGORITHMS 9
Fault table method-path sensitization method – Boolean difference method-D algorithm
-Tolerance techniques – The compact algorithm – Fault in PLA – Test generation-DFT
schemes – Built in self test
UNIT IV SYNCHRONOUS DESIGN USING PROGRAMMABLE DEVICES 9
Programming logic device families – Designing a synchronous sequential circuit using
PLA/PAL – Realization of finite state machine using PLD – FPGA – Xilinx FPGA-Xilinx
4000
UNIT V SYSTEM DESIGN USING VHDL 9
VHDL operators – Arrays – concurrent and sequential statements – packages-
Data flow – Behavioral – structural modeling – compilation and simulation of
VHDL code –Test bench - Realization of combinational and sequential circuits
using HDL – Registers – counters – sequential machine – serial adder –
Multiplier- Divider – Design of simple microprocessor
L : 45 + T :15 = 60
REFERENCES:
1 Charles H.Roth Jr “Fundamentals of Logic Design” Thomson Learning 2004
2 Nripendra N Biswas “Logic Design Theory” Prentice Hall of India,2001
3 Parag K.Lala “Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design” B S
Publications,2002
4 Parag K.Lala “Digital system Design using PLD” B S Publications,2003
5 Charles H Roth Jr.”Digital System Design using VHDL” Thomson learning,
2004
6 Douglas L.Perry “VHDL programming by Example” Tata McGraw.Hill - 2006
7
VL9212 VLSI DESIGN TECHNIQUES
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I MOS TRANSISTOR THEORY AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGY 9
NMOS and PMOS transistors, Threshold voltage- Body effect- Design equations-
Second order effects. MOS models and small signal AC characteristics. Basic CMOS
technology.
UNIT II INVERTERS AND LOGIC GATES 9
NMOS and CMOS Inverters, Stick diagram, Inverter ratio, DC and transient
characteristics , switching times, Super buffers, Driving large capacitance loads, CMOS
logic structures , Transmission gates, Static CMOS design, dynamic CMOS design.
UNIT III CIRCUIT CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE ESTIMATION 9
Resistance estimation, Capacitance estimation, Inductance, switching characteristics,
transistor sizing, power dissipation and design margining. Charge sharing .Scaling.
UNIT IV VLSI SYSTEM COMPONENTS CIRCUITS AND SYSTEM LEVEL
PHYSICAL DESIGN 9
Multiplexers, Decoders, comparators, priority encoders, Shift registers. Arithmetic circuits
– Ripple carry adders, Carry look ahead adders, High-speed adders, Multipliers.
Physical design – Delay modelling ,cross talk, floor planning, power distribution. Clock
distribution.
UNIT V VERILOG HARDWARE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE 9
Overview of digital design with Verilog HDL, hierarchical modeling concepts, modules
and port definitions, gate level modeling, data flow modeling, behavioral modeling, task
& functions, Test Bench.
L = 45 , TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES:
1. Neil H.E. Weste and Kamran Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design,
Pearson Education ASIA, 2nd edition, 2000.
2. John P.Uyemura “Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems”, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 2002.
3. Samir Palnitkar, “Verilog HDL”, Pearson Education, 2nd Edition, 2004.
4. Eugene D.Fabricius, “Introduction to VLSI Design”, McGraw Hill International
Editions, 1990.
5. J.Bhasker, B.S.Publications, “A Verilog HDL Primer”, 2nd Edition, 2001.
6. Pucknell, “Basic VLSI Design”, Prentice Hall of India Publication, 1995.
7. Wayne Wolf “Modern VLSI Design System on chip. Pearson Education.2002.
8
AP9213 ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE 9
Instruction Set – Data formats –Addressing modes – Memory hierarchy –register file –
Cache – Virtual memory and paging – Segmentation- pipelining –the instruction pipeline
– pipeline hazards – instruction level parallelism – reduced instruction set –Computer
principles – RISC versus CISC.
UNIT II HIGH PERFORMANCE CISC ARCHITECTURE – PENTIUM 9
CPU Architecture- Bus Operations – Pipelining – Brach predication – floating point unit-
Operating Modes –Paging – Multitasking – Exception and Interrupts – Instruction set –
addressing modes – Programming the Pentium processor.
UNIT III HIGH PERFORMANCE RISC ARCHITECTURE – ARM 9
Organization of CPU – Bus architecture –Memory management unit - ARM instruction
set- Thumb Instruction set- addressing modes – Programming the ARM processor.
UNIT IV MOTOROLA 68HC11 MICROCONTROLLERS 9
Instruction set addressing modes – operating modes- Interrupsystem- RTC-Serial
Communication Interface – A/D Converter PWM and UART.
UNIT V PIC MICROCONTROLLER 9
CPU Architecture – Instruction set – interrupts- Timers- I2C Interfacing –UART- A/D
Converter –PWM and introduction to C-Compilers.
REFERENCES :
1. Daniel Tabak , ‘’ Advanced Microprocessors” McGraw Hill.Inc., 1995
2. James L. Antonakos , “ The Pentium Microprocessor ‘’ Pearson Education ,
1997.
3. Steve Furber , ‘’ ARM System –On –Chip architecture “Addision Wesley , 2000.
4. Gene .H.Miller .” Micro Computer Engineering ,” Pearson Education , 2003.
5. John .B.Peatman , “ Design with PIC Microcontroller , Prentice hall, 1997.
6. James L.Antonakos ,” An Introduction to the Intel family of Microprocessors ‘’
Pearson Education 1999.
7. Barry.B.Breg,” The Intel Microprocessors Architecture , Programming and
Interfacing “ , PHI,2002.
8. Valvano "Embedded Microcomputer Systems" Thomson Asia PVT LTD first
reprint 2001.
9
AP9217 ELECTRONICS DESIGN LABORATORY I
L T P C
0 0 4 2
1. System design using PIC Microcontroller.
2. Implementation of Adaptive Filters, periodogram and multistage multirate
system in DSP Processor
3. Simulation of QMF using Simulation Packages
4. Modeling of Sequential Digital system using VHDL.
5. Modeling of Sequential Digital system using Verilog.
6. Design and Implementation of ALU using FPGA.
7. Simulation of NMOS and CMOS circuits using SPICE.
8. System design using 16- bit Microprocessor.
AP9221 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I MODELS FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT ACTIVE DEVICES 9
Depletion region of a PN junction – large signal behavior of bipolar transistors- small signal
model of bipolar transistor- large signal behavior of MOSFET- small signal model of the
MOS transistors- short channel effects in MOS transistors – weak inversion in MOS
transistors- substrate current flow in MOS transistor.
UNIT II CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR IC 9
Current sources, Analysis of difference amplifiers with active load using BJT and FET,
supply and temperature independent biasing techniques, voltage references. Output stages:
Emitter follower, source follower and Push pull output stages.
UNIT III OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 9
Analysis of operational amplifiers circuit, slew rate model and high frequency analysis,
Frequency response of integrated circuits: Single stage and multistage amplifiers,
Operational amplifier noise
UNIT IV ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND PLL 9
Analysis of four quadrant and variable trans conductance multiplier, voltage controlled
oscillator, closed loop analysis of PLL, Monolithic PLL design in integrated circuits: Sources
of noise- Noise models of Integrated-circuit Components – Circuit Noise Calculations –
Equivalent Input Noise Generators – Noise Bandwidth – Noise Figure and Noise
Temperature
UNIT V ANALOG DESIGN WITH MOS TECHNOLOGY 9
MOS Current Mirrors – Simple, Cascode, Wilson and Widlar current source – CMOS Class
AB output stages – Two stage MOS Operational Amplifiers, with Cascode, MOS Telescopic-
Cascode Operational Amplifier – MOS Folded Cascode and MOS Active Cascode
Operational Amplifiers
TOTAL: 45
10
REFERENCES:
1. Gray, Meyer, Lewis, Hurst, “Analysis and design of Analog IC’s”, Fourth Edition, Willey
International, 2002.
2. Behzad Razavi, “Principles of data conversion system design”, S.Chand and company
ltd, 2000
3. Nandita Dasgupata, Amitava Dasgupta,”Semiconductor Devices, Modelling and
Technology”, Prentice Hall of India pvt. ltd, 2004.
4. Grebene, Bipolar and MOS Analog Integrated circuit design”, John Wiley &
sons,Inc.,2003.
5. Phillip E.Allen Douglas R. Holberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”, Second Edition-
Oxford University Press-2003
AP9222 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND PARALLEL PROCESSING
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I THEORY OF PARALLELISM 9
Parallel computer models - the state of computing, Multiprocessors and Multicomputers
and Multivectors and SIMD computers, PRAM and VLSI models, Architectural
development tracks. Program and network properties- Conditions of parallelism.
UNIT II PARTITIONING AND SCHEDULING 9
Program partitioning and scheduling, Program flow mechanisms, System interconnect
architectures. Principles of scalable performance - performance matrices and measures,
Parallel processing applications, speedup performance laws, scalability analysis and
approaches.
UNIT III HARDWARE TECHNOLOGIES 9
Processor and memory hierarchy advanced processor technology, superscalar and
vector processors, memory hierarchy technology, virtual memory technology, bus cache
and shared memory - backplane bus systems, cache memory organisations, shared
memory organisations, sequential and weak consistency models.
UNIT IV PIPELINING AND SUPERSCALAR TECHNOLOGIES 9
Parallel and scalable architectures, Multiprocessor and Multicomputers, Multivector and
SIMD computers, Scalable, Multithreaded and data flow architectures.
UNIT V SOFTWARE AND PARALLEL PROGRAMMING 9
Parallel models, Languages and compilers, Parallel program development and
environments, UNIX, MACH and OSF/1 for parallel computers.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Kai Hwang, " Advanced Computer Architecture ", McGraw Hill International, 2001.
2.. Dezso Sima, Terence Fountain, Peter Kacsuk, ”Advanced Computer architecture – A
design Space Approach” , Pearson Education , 2003.
3. John P.Shen, “Modern processor design . Fundamentals of super scalar processors”,
Tata McGraw Hill 2003.
4. Kai Hwang, “Scalable parallel computing”, Tata McGraw Hill 1998.
11
5. William Stallings, “ Computer Organization and Architecture”, Macmillan Publishing
Company, 1990.
6. M.J. Quinn, “ Designing Efficient Algorithms for Parallel Computers”, McGraw Hill
International, 1994.
7. Barry, Wilkinson, Michael, Allen “Parallel Programming”, Pearson Education Asia ,
2002
8. Harry F. Jordan Gita Alaghband, “ Fundamentals of parallel Processing”, Pearson
Education , 2003
9. Richard Y.Kain, “ Advanced computer architecture –A systems Design Approach”,
PHI, 2003.
AP9223 DIGITAL CONTROL ENGINEERING
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I PRINCIPLES OF CONTROLLERS 9
Review of frequency and time response analysis and specifications of control systems,
need for controllers, continues time compensations, continues time PI, PD, PID
controllers, digital PID controllers.
UNIT II SIGNAL PROCESSING IN DIGITAL CONTROL 9
Sampling, time and frequency domain description, aliasing, hold operation, mathematical
model of sample and hold, zero and first order hold, factors limiting the choice of
sampling rate, reconstruction.
UNIT III MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF SAMPLED DATA CONTROL SYSTEM
9
Difference equation description, Z-transform method of description, pulse transfer
function, time and frequency response of discrete time control systems, stability of digital
control systems, Jury's stability test, state variable concepts, first companion, second
companion, Jordan canonical models, discrete state variable models, elementary
principles.
UNIT IV DESIGN OF DIGITAL CONTROL ALGORITHMS 9
Review of principle of compensator design, Z-plane specifications, digital compensator
design using frequency response plots, discrete integrator, discrete differentiator,
development of digital PID controller, transfer function, design in the Z-plane.
UNIT V PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF DIGITAL CONTROL ALGORITHMS 9
Algorithm development of PID control algorithms, software implementation,
implementation using microprocessors and microcontrollers, finite word length effects,
choice of data acquisition systems, microcontroller based temperature control systems,
microcontroller based motor speed control systems.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES :
1. M.Gopal, "Digital Control and Static Variable Methods", Tata McGraw Hill, New
Delhi, 1997.
2. John J. D'Azzo, "Constantive Houpios, Linear Control System Analysis and
Design", Mc Graw Hill, 1995.
3. Kenneth J. Ayala, "The 8051 Microcontroller- Architecture, Programming and
Applications", Penram International, 2nd Edition, 1996.
12
AP9224 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I EMBEDDED PROCESSORS 9
Embedded Computers, Characteristics of Embedded Computing Applications,
Challenges in Embedded Computing system design, Embedded system design process-
Requirements, Specification, Architectural Design, Designing Hardware and Software
Components, System Integration, Formalism for System Design- Structural Description,
Behavioural Description, Design Example: Model Train Controller, ARM processorprocessor
and memory organization.
UNIT II EMBEDDED PROCESSOR AND COMPUTING PLATFORM 9
Data operations, Flow of Control, SHARC processor- Memory organization, Data
operations, Flow of Control, parallelism with instructions, CPU Bus configuration, ARM
Bus, SHARC Bus, Memory devices, Input/output devices, Component interfacing,
designing with microprocessor development and debugging, Design Example : Alarm
Clock. Hybrid Architecture
UNIT III NETWORKS 9
Distributed Embedded Architecture- Hardware and Software Architectures, Networks for
embedded systems- I2C, CAN Bus, SHARC link supports, Ethernet, Myrinet, Internet,
Network-Based design- Communication Analysis, system performance Analysis,
Hardware platform design, Allocation and scheduling, Design Example: Elevator
Controller.
UNIT IV REAL-TIME CHARACTERISTICS 9
Clock driven Approach, weighted round robin Approach, Priority driven Approach,
Dynamic Versus Static systems, effective release times and deadlines, Optimality of the
Earliest deadline first (EDF) algorithm, challenges in validating timing constraints in
priority driven systems, Off-line Versus On-line scheduling.
UNIT V SYSTEM DESIGN TECHNIQUES 9
Design Methodologies, Requirement Analysis, Specification, System Analysis and
Architecture Design, Quality Assurance, Design Example: Telephone PBX- System
Architecture, Ink jet printer- Hardware Design and Software Design, Personal Digital
Assistants, Set-top Boxes.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Wayne Wolf, “Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing
System Design”, Morgan Kaufman Publishers.
2. Jane.W.S. Liu, “Real-Time systems”, Pearson Education Asia.
3. C. M. Krishna and K. G. Shin, “Real-Time Systems” , McGraw-Hill, 1997
4. Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis, “Embedded System Design: A Unified
Hardware/Software Introduction” , John Wiley & Sons.
13
AP9227 ELECTRONIC DESIGN LAB II
L T P C
0 0 4 2
1. System design using PLL
2. System design using CPLD
3. Alarm clock using embedded micro controller
4. Model train controller using embedded micro controller
5. Elevator controller using embedded micro controller
6. Simulation of Non adaptive Digital Control System using MAT LAB control system
toolbox
7. Simulation of Adaptive Digital Control System using MAT LAB control system toolbox
AP9251 DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS 9
Elements of digital image processing systems, Vidicon and Digital Camera working
principles, Elements of visual perception, brightness, contrast, hue, saturation, Mach
Band effect, Image sampling, Quantization, Dither, Two dimensional mathematical
preliminaries.
UNIT II IMAGE TRANSFORMS 9
1D DFT, 2D transforms - DFT, DCT, Discrete Sine, Walsh, Hadamard, Slant, Haar, KLT,
SVD, Wavelet transform.
UNIT III IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND RESTORATION 9
Histogram modification, Noise distributions, Spatial averaging, Directional Smoothing,
Median, Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Contraharmonic and Yp mean filters .
Design of 2D FIR filters. Image restoration - degradation model, Unconstrained and
Constrained restoration, Inverse filtering-removal of blur caused by uniform linear
motion, Wiener filtering, Geometric transformations-spatial transformations, Gray Level
interpolation. .
UNIT IV IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND RECOGNITION 9
Image segmentation - Edge detection, Edge linking and boundary detection, Region
growing, Region splitting and Merging, Image Recognition - Patterns and pattern
classes, Matching by minimum distance classifier, Matching by correlation., Neural
networks-Backpropagation network and training, Neural network to recognize shapes.
UNIT V IMAGE COMPRESSION 9
Need for data compression, Huffman, Run Length Encoding, Shift codes, Arithmetic
coding, Vector Quantization, Block Truncation Coding, Transform coding, JPEG
standard, JPEG 2000, EZW, SPIHT, MPEG.
14
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, “ Digital Image Processing”, Pearson
Education, Inc., Second Edition, 2004
2. Anil K. Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India,
2002.
3. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Steven Eddins,” Digital Image
Processing using MATLAB”, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004.
4. D.E. Dudgeon and R.M. Mersereau, “Multidimensional Digital Signal
Processing”, Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, 1990.
5. William K. Pratt, “ Digital Image Processing”, John Wiley, New York, 2002.
6. Milan Sonka et al, “Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision”,
Brookes/Cole, Vikas Publishing House, 2nd edition, 1999;
7. Sid Ahmed, M.A., “ Image Processing Theory, Algorithms and Architectures”,
McGrawHill, 1995.
AP9252 NEURAL NETWORKS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I BASIC LEARNING ALGORITHMS 9
Biological Neuron – Artificial Neural Model - Types of activation functions – Architecture:
Feedforward and Feedback – Learning Process: Error Correction Learning –Memory
Based Learning – Hebbian Learning – Competitive Learning - Boltzman Learning –
Supervised and Unsupervised Learning – Learning Tasks: Pattern Space – Weight
Space – Pattern Association – Pattern Recognition – Function Approximation – Control
– Filtering - Beamforming – Memory – Adaptation - Statistical Learning Theory – Single
Layer Perceptron – Perceptron Learning Algorithm – Perceptron Convergence Theorem
– Least Mean Square Learning Algorithm – Multilayer Perceptron – Back Propagation
Algorithm – XOR problem – Limitations of Back Propagation Algorithm.
UNIT II
RADIAL-BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES:
RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS: 9
Cover’s Theorem on the Separability of Patterns - Exact Interpolator – Regularization
Theory – Generalized Radial Basis Function Networks - Learning in Radial Basis
Function Networks - Applications: XOR Problem – Image Classification. Support Vector
Machines: Optimal Hyperplane for Linearly Separable Patterns and Nonseparable
Patterns – Support Vector Machine for Pattern Recognition – XOR Problem - Î-
insensitive Loss Function – Support Vector Machines for Nonlinear Regression
UNIT III COMMITTEE MACHINES: 9
Ensemble Averaging - Boosting – Associative Gaussian Mixture Model – Hierarchical
Mixture of Experts Model(HME) – Model Selection using a Standard Decision Tree – A
Priori and Postpriori Probabilities – Maximum Likelihood Estimation – Learning
Strategies for the HME Model - EM Algorithm – Applications of EM Algorithm to HME
Model
NEURODYNAMICS SYSTEMS:
Dynamical Systems – Attractors and Stability – Non-linear Dynamical Systems-
Lyapunov Stability – Neurodynamical Systems – The Cohen-Grossberg Theorem.
15
UNIT IV ATTRACTOR NEURAL NETWORKS: 9
Associative Learning – Attractor Neural Network Associative Memory – Linear
Associative Memory – Hopfield Network – Content Addressable Memory – Strange
Attractors and Chaos - Error Performance of Hopfield Networks - Applications of
Hopfield Networks – Simulated Annealing – Boltzmann Machine – Bidirectional
Associative Memory – BAM Stability Analysis – Error Correction in BAMs - Memory
Annihilation of Structured Maps in BAMS – Continuous BAMs – Adaptive BAMs –
Applications
ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY:
Noise-Saturation Dilemma - Solving Noise-Saturation Dilemma – Recurrent On-center –
Off-surround Networks – Building Blocks of Adaptive Resonance – Substrate of
Resonance Structural Details of Resonance Model – Adaptive Resonance Theory –
Applications
UNIT V SELF ORGANISING MAPS: 9
Self-organizing Map – Maximal Eigenvector Filtering – Sanger’s Rule – Generalized
Learning Law – Competitive Learning - Vector Quantization – Mexican Hat Networks -
Self-organizing Feature Maps – Applications
PULSED NEURON MODELS:
Spiking Neuron Model – Integrate-and-Fire Neurons – Conductance Based Models –
Computing with Spiking Neurons.
Total: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Satish Kumar, “Neural Networks: A Classroom Approach”, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2004.
2. Simon Haykin, “Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation”, 2ed., Addison
Wesley Longman (Singapore) Private Limited, Delhi, 2001.
3. Martin T.Hagan, Howard B. Demuth, and Mark Beale, “Neural Network Design”,
Thomson Learning, New Delhi, 2003.
4. James A. Freeman and David M. Skapura, “Neural Networks Algorithms,
Applications, and Programming Techniques, Pearson Education (Singapore) Private
Limited, Delhi, 2003.
16
AP9253 ROBOTICS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS 9
Motion - Potential Function, Road maps, Cell decomposition and Sensor and sensor
planning. Kinematics. Forward and Inverse Kinematics - Transformation matrix and
DH transformation. Inverse Kinematics - Geometric methods and Algebraic methods.
Non-Holonomic constraints.
UNIT II COMPUTER VISION 9
Projection - Optics, Projection on the Image Plane and Radiometry. Image Processing
- Connectivity, Images-Gray Scale and Binary Images, Blob Filling, Thresholding,
Histogram. Convolution - Digital Convolution and Filtering and Masking Techniques.
Edge Detection - Mono and Stereo Vision.
UNIT III SENSORS AND SENSING DEVICES 9
Introduction to various types of sensor. Resistive sensors. Range sensors - Ladar
(laser distance and ranging), Sonar, Radar and Infra-red. Introduction to sensing -
Light sensing, Heat sensing, Touch sensing and Position sensing.
UNIT IV ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 9
Uniform Search strategies - Breadth first, Depth first, Depth limited, Iterative and
deepening depth first search and Bidirectional search. The A* algorithm . Planning -
State-Space Planning , Plan-Space Planning, Graphplan/SatPlan and their
Comparison, Multi-agent planning 1, and Multi-agent planning 2, Probabilistic
Reasoning - Bayesian Networks, Decision Trees and Bayes net inference .
UNIT V INTEGRATION TO ROBOT 9
Building of 4 axis or 6 axis robot - Vision System for pattern detection - Sensors for
obstacle detection - AI algorithms for path finding and decision making
Total:
45 REFERENCES:
1. Duda, Hart and Stork, Pattern Recognition. Wiley-Interscience, 2000.
2. Mallot, Computational Vision: Information Processing in Perception and Visual
Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
3. Artificial Intelligence-A Modern Approach By Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig,
Pearson Education Series in Artificial Intelligence, 2004
4. Fundamentals of Robotics, Analysis and control By Robert Schilling and Craig,
Hall of India Private Limied, New Delhi, 2003.
5. Computer Vision, A modern Approach By Forsyth and Ponce, Person Education,
2003.
17
VL9211 DSP INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I DSP INTEGARTED CIRCUITS AND VLSI CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGIES 9
Standard digital signal processors, Application specific IC’s for DSP, DSP systems, DSP
system design, Integrated circuit design. MOS transistors, MOS logic, VLSI process
technologies, Trends in CMOS technologies.
UNIT II DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 9
Digital signal processing, Sampling of analog signals, Selection of sample frequency,
Signal-processing systems, Frequency response, Transfer functions, Signal flow graphs,
Filter structures, Adaptive DSP algorithms, DFT-The Discrete Fourier Transform, FFTThe
Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm, Image coding, Discrete cosine transforms.
UNIT III DIGITAL FILTERS AND FINITE WORD LENGTH EFFECTS 9
FIR filters, FIR filter structures, FIR chips, IIR filters, Specifications of IIR filters, Mapping
of analog transfer functions, Mapping of analog filter structures, Multirate systems,
Interpolation with an integer factor L, Sampling rate change with a ratio L/M, Multirate
filters. Finite word length effects -Parasitic oscillations, Scaling of signal levels, Round-off
noise, Measuring round-off noise, Coefficient sensitivity, Sensitivity and noise.
UNIT IV DSP ARCHITECTURES AND SYNTHESIS OF DSP ARCHITECTURES
9
DSP system architectures, Standard DSP architecture, Ideal DSP architectures,
Multiprocessors and multicomputers, Systolic and Wave front arrays, Shared memory
architectures. Mapping of DSP algorithms onto hardware, Implementation based on
complex PEs, Shared memory architecture with Bit – serial PEs.
UNIT V ARITHMETIC UNITS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN 9
Conventional number system, Redundant Number system, Residue Number System,
Bit-parallel and Bit-Serial arithmetic, Basic shift accumulator, Reducing the memory size,
Complex multipliers, Improved shift-accumulator. Layout of VLSI circuits, FFT processor,
DCT processor and Interpolator as case studies. Cordic algorithm.
Total: 45 Hours
REFERENCES:
1. Lars Wanhammer, “DSP Integrated Circuits”, 1999 Academic press, New York
2. A.V.Oppenheim et.al, “Discrete-time Signal Processing”, Pearson Education,
2000.
3. Emmanuel C. Ifeachor, Barrie W. Jervis, “ Digital signal processing – A practical
approach”, Second Edition, Pearson Education, Asia.
4. Keshab K.Parhi, “VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems design and
Implementation”, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
18
VL9261 ASIC DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ASICS, CMOS LOGIC AND ASIC LIBRARY DESIGN
9
Types of ASICs - Design flow - CMOS transistors CMOS Design rules - Combinational Logic
Cell – Sequential logic cell - Data path logic cell - Transistors as Resistors - Transistor
Parasitic Capacitance- Logical effort –Library cell design - Library architecture .
UNIT II PROGRAMMABLE ASICS, PROGRAMMABLE ASIC LOGIC CELLS
AND PROGRAMMABLE ASIC I/O CELLS 9
Anti fuse - static RAM - EPROM and EEPROM technology - PREP benchmarks - Actel ACT
- Xilinx LCA –Altera FLEX - Altera MAX DC & AC inputs and outputs - Clock & Power inputs
- Xilinx I/O blocks.
UNIT III PROGRAMMABLE ASIC INTERCONNECT, PROGRAMMABLE ASIC
DESIGN SOFTWARE AND LOW LEVEL DESIGN ENTRY 9
Actel ACT -Xilinx LCA - Xilinx EPLD - Altera MAX 5000 and 7000 - Altera MAX 9000 - Altera
FLEX –Design systems - Logic Synthesis - Half gate ASIC -Schematic entry - Low level
design language - PLA tools -EDIF- CFI design representation.
UNIT IV LOGIC SYNTHESIS, SIMULATION AND TESTING 9
Verilog and logic synthesis -VHDL and logic synthesis - types of simulation -boundary scan
test - fault simulation - automatic test pattern generation.
UNIT V ASIC CONSTRUCTION, FLOOR PLANNING, PLACEMENT AND
ROUTING
9
System partition - FPGA partitioning - partitioning methods - floor planning - placement -
physical design flow –global routing - detailed routing - special routing - circuit extraction -
DRC.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. M.J.S .Smith, "Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Addison -Wesley Longman
Inc., 1997.
2. Farzad Nekoogar and Faranak Nekoogar, From ASICs to SOCs: A Practical
Approach, Prentice Hall PTR, 2003.
3. Wayne Wolf, FPGA-Based System Design, Prentice Hall PTR, 2004.
4. R. Rajsuman, System-on-a-Chip Design and Test. Santa Clara, CA: Artech House
Publishers, 2000.
5. F. Nekoogar. Timing Verification of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs).
Prentice Hall PTR, 1999.
19
AP9260 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9
Polynomial and Exponential algorithms, big "oh" and small "oh" notation, exact
algorithms and heuristics, direct / indirect / deterministic algorithms, static and dynamic
complexity, stepwise refinement.
UNIT II DESIGN TECHNIQUES 9
Subgoals method, working backwards, work tracking, branch and bound algorithms for
traveling salesman problem and knapsack problem, hill climbing techniques, divide and
conquer method, dynamic programming, greedy methods.
UNIT III SEARCHING AND SORTING 9
Sequential search, binary search, block search, Fibonacci search, bubble sort, bucket
sorting, quick sort, heap sort, average case and worst case behavior
UNIT IV GRAPH ALGORITHMS 9
Minimum spanning, tree, shortest path algorithms, R-connected graphs, Even's and
Kleitman's algorithms, max-flow min cut theorem, Steiglitz's link deficit algorithm.
UNIT V SELECTED TOPICS 9
NP Completeness Approximation Algorithms, NP Hard Problems, Strasseu's Matrix
Multiplication Algorithms, Magic Squares, Introduction To Parallel Algorithms and
Genetic Algorithms, Monte-Carlo Methods, Amortised Analysis.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Sara Baase, "Computer Algorithms : Introduction to Design and Analysis", Addison
Wesley, 1988.
2. T.H.Cormen, C.E.Leiserson and R.L.Rivest, "Introduction to Algorithms", Mc Graw
Hill, 1994.
3. E.Horowitz and S.Sahni, "Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms", Galgotia
Publications, 1988.
4. D.E.Goldberg, "Genetic Algorithms : Search Optimization and Machine Learning",
Addison Wesley, 1989.
20
NE9251 RELIABILITY ENGINEERING
L T P C 3
0 0 3
UNIT I PROBABILITY PLOTTING AND LOAD-STRENGTH INTERFERENCE 9
Statistical distribution , statistical confidence and hypothesis testing ,probability plotting
techniques – Weibull, extreme value ,hazard, binomial data; Analysis of load – strength
interference , Safety margin and loading roughness on reliability.
UNIT II RELIABILITY PREDICTION, MODELLING AND DESIGN 9
Statistical design of experiments and analysis of variance Taguchi method, Reliability
prediction, Reliability modeling, Block diagram and Fault tree Analysis ,petric Nets, State
space Analysis, Monte carlo simulation, Design analysis methods – quality function
deployment, load strength analysis, failure modes, effects and criticality analysis.
UNIT III ELECTRONICS AND SOFTWARE SYSTEMS RELIABILITY 9
Reliability of electronic components, component types and failure mechanisms, Electronic
system reliability prediction, Reliability in electronic system design; software errors, software
structure and modularity, fault tolerance, software reliability, prediction and measurement,
hardware/software interfaces.
UNIT IV RELIABILITY TESTING AND ANALYSIS 9
Test environments, testing for reliability and durability, failure reporting, Pareto analysis,
Accelerated test data analysis, CUSUM charts, Exploratory data analysis and proportional
hazards modeling, reliability demonstration, reliability growth monitoring.
UNIT V MANUFACTURE AND RELIABILITY MAQNAGEMENT 9
Control of production variability, Acceptance sampling, Quality control and stress screening,
Production failure reporting; preventive maintenance strategy, Maintenance schedules,
Design for maintainability, Integrated reliability programmes , reliability and costs, standard
for reliability, quality and safety, specifying reliability, organization for reliability.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Patrick D.T. O’Connor, David Newton and Richard Bromley, Practical Reliability
Engineering, Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2002
2. David J. Klinger, Yoshinao Nakada and Maria A. Menendez, Von Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, "AT & T Reliability Manual", 5th Edition, 1998.
3. Gregg K. Hobbs, "Accelerated Reliability Engineering - HALT and HASS", John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 2000.
4. Lewis, "Introduction to Reliability Engineering", 2nd Edition, Wiley International, 1996.
21
AP9256 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE AND COMPATIBILITY IN
SYSTEM DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I EMI/EMC CONCEPTS 9
EMI-EMC definitions and Units of parameters; Sources and victim of EMI; Conducted
and Radiated EMI Emission and Susceptibility; Transient EMI, ESD; Radiation Hazards.
UNIT II EMI COUPLING PRINCIPLES 9
Conducted, radiated and transient coupling; Common ground impedance coupling ;
Common mode and ground loop coupling ; Differential mode coupling ; Near field cable
to cable coupling, cross talk ; Field to cable coupling ; Power mains and Power supply
coupling.
UNIT III EMI CONTROL TECHNIQUES 9
Shielding, Filtering, Grounding, Bonding, Isolation transformer, Transient suppressors,
Cable routing, Signal control.
UNIT IV EMC DESIGN OF PCBS 9
Component selection and mounting; PCB trace impedance; Routing; Cross talk control;
Power distribution decoupling; Zoning; Grounding; VIAs connection; Terminations.
UNIT V EMI MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARDS 9
Open area test site; TEM cell; EMI test shielded chamber and shielded ferrite lined
anechoic chamber; Tx /Rx Antennas, Sensors, Injectors / Couplers, and coupling factors;
EMI Rx and spectrum analyzer; Civilian standards-CISPR, FCC, IEC, EN; Military
standards-MIL461E/462.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCE:
1. V.P.Kodali, “Engineering EMC Principles, Measurements and Technologies”,
IEEE Press, Newyork, 1996.
2. Henry W.Ott.,”Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems”, A Wiley
Inter Science Publications, John Wiley and Sons, Newyork, 1988.
3. Bemhard Keiser, “Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility”, 3rd Ed, Artech
house, Norwood, 1986.
4. C.R.Paul,”Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility” , John Wiley and
Sons, Inc, 1992.
5. Don R.J.White Consultant Incorporate, “Handbook of EMI/EMC” , Vol I-V,
1988.
22
CP9212 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTER NETWORKS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9
Review of OSI, TCP/IP; Multiplexing, Modes of Communication, Switching, Routing.
SONET – DWDM – DSL – ISDN – BISDN,ATM.
UNIT II MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING APPLICATIONS 9
Streaming stored Audio and Video – Best effort service – protocols for real time
interactive applications – Beyond best effort – scheduling and policing mechanism –
integrated services – RSVP- differentiated services.
UNIT III ADVANCED NETWORKS CONCEPTS 9
VPN-Remote-Access VPN, site-to-site VPN, Tunneling to PPP, Security in VPN.MPLSoperation,
Routing, Tunneling and use of FEC, Traffic Engineering, MPLS based VPN,
overlay networks-P2P connections.
UNIT IV TRAFFIC MODELLING 8
Little’s theorem, Need for modeling , Poisson modeling and its failure, Non- poisson
models, Network performance evaluation.
UNIT V NETWORK SECURITY AND MANAGEMENT 10
Principles of cryptography – Authentication – integrity – key distribution and certification
– Access control and: fire walls – attacks and counter measures – security in many
layers. Infrastructure for network management – The internet standard management
framework – SMI, MIB, SNMP, Security and administration – ASN.1
L=45
REFERENCES:
1. J.F. Kurose & K.W. Ross,”Computer Networking- A top down approach
featuring the internet”, Pearson, 2nd edition, 2003.
2. Walrand .J. Varatya, High performance communication network, Morgan
Kauffman – Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd. 2nd Edition, 2000.
3. LEOM-GarCIA, WIDJAJA, “Communication networks”, TMH seventh reprint
2002.
4. Aunurag kumar, D. MAnjunath, Joy kuri, “Communication Networking”,
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1ed 2004.
5. Hersent Gurle & petit, “IP Telephony, packet Pored Multimedia
communication Systems”, Pearson education 2003.
6. Fred Halsall and Lingana Gouda Kulkarni,”Computer Networking and the
Internet” fifth edition, Pearson education
7 Nader F.Mir ,Computer and Communication Networks, first edition.
8. Larry l.Peterson & Bruce S.David, “Computer Networks: A System
Approach”- 1996
23
AP9258 RF SYSTEM DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I CMOS PHYSICS, TRANSCEIVER SPECIFICATIONS AND
ARCHITECTURES 9
CMOS: Introduction to MOSFET Physics – Noise: Thermal, shot, flicker, popcorn noise
Transceiver Specifications: Two port Noise theory, Noise Figure, THD, IP2, IP3,
Sensitivity, SFDR, Phase noise - Specification distribution over a communication link
Transceiver Architectures: Receiver: Homodyne, Heterodyne, Image reject, Low IF
Architectures – Transmitter: Direct upconversion, Two step upconversion
UNIT II IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND AMPLIFIERS 9
S-parameters with Smith chart – Passive IC components - Impedance matching
networks Amplifiers: Common Gate, Common Source Amplifiers – OC Time constants in
bandwidth estimation and enhancement – High frequency amplifier design
Low Noise Amplifiers: Power match and Noise match – Single ended and Differential
LNAs – Terminated with Resistors and Source Degeneration LNAs.
UNIT III FEEDBACK SYSTEMS AND POWER AMPLIFIERS 9
Feedback Systems: Stability of feedback systems: Gain and phase margin, Root-locus
techniques – Time and Frequency domain considerations – Compensation
Power Amplifiers: General model – Class A, AB, B, C, D, E and F amplifiers –
Linearisation Techniques – Efficiency boosting techniques – ACPR metric – Design
considerations
UNIT IV PLL AND FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS 9
PLL: Linearised Model – Noise properties – Phase detectors – Loop filters and Charge
pumps Frequency Synthesizers: Integer-N frequency synthesizers – Direct Digital
Frequency synthesizers
UNIT V MIXERS AND OSCILLATORS 9
Mixer: characteristics – Non-linear based mixers: Quadratic mixers – Multiplier based
mixers: Single balanced and double balanced mixers – subsampling mixers
Oscillators: Describing Functions, Colpitts oscillators – Resonators – Tuned Oscillators –
Negative resistance oscillators – Phase noise
TOT
AL : 45
TEXT BOOKS:
1. T.Lee, “Design of CMOS RF Integrated Circuits”, Cambridge, 2004
2. B.Razavi, “RF Microelectronics”, Pearson Education, 1997
3. Jan Crols, Michiel Steyaert, “CMOS Wireless Transceiver Design”, Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 1997
4. B.Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, McGraw Hill, 2001.
24
VL9252 LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I POWER DISSIPATION IN CMOS 9
Hierarchy of limits of power – Sources of power consumption – Physics of power
dissipation in CMOS FET devices- Basic principle of low power design.
UNIT II POWER OPTIMIZATION 9
Logical level power optimization – Circuit level low power design – Circuit techniques for
reducing power consumption in adders and multipliers.
UNIT III DESIGN OF LOW POWER CMOS CIRCUITS 9
Computer Arithmetic techniques for low power systems – Reducing power consumption
in memories – Low power clock, Interconnect and layout design – Advanced techniques
– Special techniques
UNIT IV POWER ESTIMATION 9
Power estimation techniques – Logic level power estimation – Simulation power analysis
– Probabilistic power analysis.
UNIT V SYNTHESIS AND SOFTWARE DESIGN FOR LOW POWER 9
Synthesis for low power –Behavioral level transforms- Software design for low power -
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. K.Roy and S.C. Prasad , LOW POWER CMOS VLSI circuit design, Wiley,2000
2. Dimitrios Soudris, Chirstian Pignet, Costas Goutis, DESIGNING CMOS CIRCUITS
FOR LOW POWER, Kluwer,2002
3. J.B. Kuo and J.H Lou, Low voltage CMOS VLSI Circuits, Wiley 1999.
4. A.P.Chandrakasan and R.W. Broadersen, Low power digital CMOS design,
Kluwer,1995.
5. Gary Yeap, Practical low power digital VLSI design, Kluwer,1998.
6. Abdellatif Bellaouar,Mohamed.I. Elmasry, Low power digital VLSI design,s Kluwer,
1995.
7. James B. Kuo, Shin – chia Lin, Low voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits.
John Wiley and sons, inc 2001
25
VL9253 VLSI SIGNAL PROCESSING L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO DSP SYSTEMS, PIPELINING AND PARALLEL
PROCESSING OF FIR FILTERS 9
Introduction to DSP systems – Typical DSP algorithms, Data flow and Dependence
graphs - critical path, Loop bound, iteration bound, Longest path matrix algorithm,
Pipelining and Parallel processing of FIR filters, Pipelining and Parallel processing for
low power.
UNIT II RETIMING, ALGORITHMIC STRENGTH REDUCTION 9
Retiming – definitions and properties, Unfolding – an algorithm for unfolding, properties
of unfolding, sample period reduction and parallel processing application, Algorithmic
strength reduction in filters and transforms – 2-parallel FIR filter, 2-parallel fast FIR filter,
DCT architecture, rank-order filters, Odd-Even merge-sort architecture, parallel rankorder
filters.
UNIT III FAST CONVOLUTION, PIPELINING AND PARALLEL PROCESSING
OF IIR FILTERS 9
Fast convolution – Cook-Toom algorithm, modified Cook-Toom algorithm, Pipelined and
parallel recursive filters – Look-Ahead pipelining in first-order IIR filters, Look-Ahead
pipelining with power-of-2 decomposition, Clustered look-ahead pipelining, Parallel
processing of IIR filters, combined pipelining and parallel processing of IIR filters.
UNIT IV SCALING, ROUND-OFF NOISE, BIT-LEVEL ARITHMETIC
ARCHITECTURES 9
Scaling and round-off noise – scaling operation, round-off noise, state variable
description of digital filters, scaling and round-off noise computation, round-off noise in
pipelined IIR filters, Bit-level arithmetic architectures – parallel multipliers with sign
extension, parallel carry-ripple and carry-save multipliers, Design of Lyon’s bit-serial
multipliers using Horner’s rule, bit-serial FIR filter, CSD representation, CSD
multiplication using Horner’s rule for precision improvement, Distributed Arithmetic
fundamentals and FIR filters
UNIT V NUMERICAL STRENGTH REDUCTION, SYNCHRONOUS, WAVE AND
ASYNCHRONOUS PIPELINING 9
Numerical strength reduction – subexpression elimination, multiple constant
multiplication, iterative matching, synchronous pipelining and clocking styles, clock skew
in edge-triggered single phase clocking, two-phase clocking, wave pipelining.
Asynchronous pipelining bundled data versus dual rail protocol.
L: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Keshab K. Parhi, “ VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems, Design and
implementation “, Wiley, Interscience, 2007.
2. U. Meyer – Baese, “ Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate
Arrays”, Springer, Second Edition, 2004
26
VL9254 ANALOG VLSI DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I BASIC CMOS CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES, CONTINUOUS TIME AND LOWVOLTAGESIGNAL
PROCESSING 9
Mixed-Signal VLSI Chips-Basic CMOS Circuits-Basic Gain Stage-Gain Boosting
Techniques-Super MOSTransistor- Primitive Analog Cells-Linear Voltage-Current
Converters-MOS Multipliers and Resistors-CMOS, Bipolar and Low-Voltage BiCMOS Op-
Amp Design-Instrumentation Amplifier Design-Low Voltage Filters.
UNIT II BASIC BICMOS CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES, CURRENT -MODE SIGNAL
PROCESSING AND NEURAL INFORMATION PROCESSING 9
Continuous-Time Signal Processing-Sampled-Data Signal Processing-Switched-Current
Data Converters-Practical Considerations in SI Circuits Biologically-Inspired Neural
Networks - Floating - Gate, Low-Power Neural Networks-CMOS Technology and Models-
Design Methodology-Networks-Contrast Sensitive Silicon Retina.
UNIT III SAMPLED-DATA ANALOG FILTERS, OVER SAMPLED A/D
CONVERTERS AND ANALOG INTEGRATED SENSORS 9
First-order and Second SC Circuits-Bilinear Transformation - Cascade Design-Switched-
Capacitor Ladder Filter-Synthesis of Switched-Current Filter- Nyquist rate A/D Converters-
Modulators for Over sampled A/D Conversion-First and Second Order and Multibit Sigma-
Delta Modulators-Interpolative Modulators –Cascaded Architecture-Decimation Filtersmechanical,
Thermal, Humidity and Magnetic Sensors-Sensor Interfaces.
UNIT IV DESIGN FOR TESTABILITY AND ANALOG VLSI INTERCONNECTS 9
Fault modelling and Simulation - Testability-Analysis Technique-Ad Hoc Methods and
General Guidelines-Scan Techniques-Boundary Scan-Built-in Self Test-Analog Test Buses-
Design for Electron -Beam Testablity-Physics of Interconnects in VLSI-Scaling of
Interconnects-A Model for Estimating Wiring Density-A Configurable Architecture for
Prototyping Analog Circuits.
UNIT V STATISTICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION, ANALOG COMPUTERAIDED
DESIGN AND ANALOG AND MIXED ANALOG-DIGITAL LAYOUT
9
Review of Statistical Concepts - Statistical Device Modeling- Statistical Circuit Simulation-
Automation Analog Circuit Design-automatic Analog Layout-CMOS Transistor Layout-
Resistor Layout-Capacitor Layout-Analog Cell Layout-Mixed Analog -Digital Layout.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Mohammed Ismail, Terri Fiez, “Analog VLSI signal and Information Processing ",
McGraw-Hill International Editons, 1994.
2. Malcom R.Haskard, Lan C.May, “Analog VLSI Design - NMOS and CMOS ", Prentice
Hall, 1998.
3. Randall L Geiger, Phillip E. Allen, " Noel K.Strader, VLSI Design Techniques for Analog
and Digital Circuits ", Mc Graw Hill International Company, 1990.
4. Jose E.France, Yannis Tsividis, “Design of Analog-Digital VLSI Circuits for
Telecommunication and signal Processing ", Prentice Hall, 1994
27
VL9221 CAD FOR VLSI CIRCUITS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I VLSI DESIGN METHODOLOGIES 9
Introduction to VLSI Design methodologies - Review of Data structures and algorithms -
Review of VLSI Design automation tools - Algorithmic Graph Theory and Computational
Complexity - Tractable and Intractable problems - general purpose methods for
combinatorial optimization.
UNIT II DESIGN RULES 9
Layout Compaction - Design rules - problem formulation - algorithms for constraint
graph compaction - placement and partitioning - Circuit representation - Placement
algorithms - partitioning
UNIT III FLOOR PLANNING 9
Floor planning concepts - shape functions and floorplan sizing - Types of local routing
problems - Area routing - channel routing - global routing - algorithms for global routing.
UNIT IV SIMULATION 9
Simulation - Gate-level modeling and simulation - Switch-level modeling and simulation
- Combinational Logic Synthesis - Binary Decision Diagrams - Two Level Logic
Synthesis.
UNIT V MODELLING AND SYNTHESIS 9
High level Synthesis - Hardware models - Internal representation - Allocation -
assignment and scheduling - Simple scheduling algorithm - Assignment problem - High
level transformations.
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCE :
1. S.H. Gerez, "Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation", John Wiley & Sons,2002.
2. N.A. Sherwani, "Algorithms for VLSI Physical Design Automation", Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2002.
28
AP9259 HARDWARE SOFTWARE CO-DESIGN
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I SYSTEM SPECIFICATION AND MODELLING 9
Embedded Systems , Hardware/Software Co-Design , Co-Design for System
Specification and Modelling , Co-Design for Heterogeneous Implementation - Processor
Synthesis , Single-Processor Architectures with one ASIC , Single-Processor
Architectures with many ASICs, Multi-Processor Architectures , Comparison of Co-
Design Approaches , Models of Computation ,Requirements for Embedded System
Specification .
UNIT II HARDWARE/SOFTWARE PARTITIONING 9
The Hardware/Software Partitioning Problem, Hardware-Software Cost Estimation,
Generation of the Partitioning Graph , Formulation of the HW/SW Partitioning Problem ,
Optimization , HW/SW Partitioning based on Heuristic Scheduling, HW/SW Partitioning
based on Genetic Algorithms .
UNIT III HARDWARE/SOFTWARE CO-SYNTHESIS 9
The Co-Synthesis Problem, State-Transition Graph, Refinement and Controller
Generation, Distributed System Co-Synthesis
UNIT IV PROTOTYPING AND EMULATION 9
Introduction, Prototyping and Emulation Techniques , Prototyping and Emulation
Environments ,Future Developments in Emulation and Prototyping ,Target Architecture-
Architecture Specialization Techniques ,System Communication Infrastructure, Target
Architectures and Application System Classes, Architectures for Control-Dominated
Systems, Architectures for Data-Dominated Systems ,Mixed Systems and Less
Specialized Systems
UNIT V DESIGN SPECIFICATION AND VERIFICATION 9
Concurrency, Coordinating Concurrent Computations, Interfacing Components,
Verification , Languages for System-Level Specification and Design System-Level
Specification ,Design Representation for System Level Synthesis, System Level
Specification Languages, Heterogeneous Specification and Multi-Language Cosimulation
TOTAL: 45
REFERENCES:
1. Ralf Niemann , “Hardware/Software Co-Design for Data Flow Dominated
Embedded Systems”, Kluwer Academic Pub, 1998.
2. Jorgen Staunstrup , Wayne Wolf ,”Hardware/Software Co-Design: Principles and
Practice” , Kluwer Academic Pub,1997.
3. Giovanni De Micheli , Rolf Ernst Morgon,” Reading in Hardware/Software Co-
Design “ Kaufmann Publishers,2001.


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