EE2402 PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR Lecture Notes for EEE - Seventh (7th) semester
EE2402 Lecture Notes
UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Importance of protective schemes for electrical apparatus and power system. Qualitative review of
faults and fault currents - relay terminology – definitions - and essential qualities of protection.
Protection against over voltages due to lightning and switching - arcing grounds - Peterson Coil -
ground wires - surge absorber and diverters
Power System earthing – neutral Earthing - basic ideas of insulation coordination.
UNIT II OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND RELAY CHARACTERISTICS
Electromagnetic relays – over current, directional and non-directional, distance, negative sequence,
differential and under frequency relays – Introduction to static relays.
UNIT III APPARATUS PROTECTION
Main considerations in apparatus protection - transformer, generator and motor protection -
protection of busbars. Transmission line protection - zones of protection. CTs and PTs and their
applications in protection schemes.
UNIT IV THEORY OF CIRCUIT INTERRUPTION
Physics of arc phenomena and arc interruption.
DC and AC circuit breaking - restriking voltage and recovery voltage - rate of rise of recovery voltage
- resistance switching - current chopping - interruption of capacitive current.
UNIT V CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Types of circuit breakers – air blast, air break, oil, SF6 and vacuum circuit breakers – comparative
merits of different circuit breakers – testing of circuit breakers.
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