EE2401 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL Lecture Notes for EEE - Seventh (7th) semseter
EE2401 Lecture Notes
UNIT I INTRODUCTION
System load – variation - load characteristics - load curves and load-duration curve (daily,
weekly and annual) - load factor - diversity factor. Importance of load forecasting and simple
techniques of forecasting. An overview of power system operation and control and the role of
computers in the implementation. (Qualitative treatment with block diagram).
UNIT II REAL POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL
Basics of speed governing mechanism and modeling - speed-load characteristics – load sharing
between two synchronous machines in parallel. Control area concept LFC control of a singlearea
system. Static and dynamic analysis of uncontrolled and controlled cases. Integration of
economic dispatch control with LFC. Two-area system – modeling - static analysis of uncontrolled
case - tie line with frequency bias control of two-area system - state variable model.
UNIT III REACTIVE POWER–VOLTAGE CONTROL
Basics of reactive power control. Excitation systems – modeling. Static and dynamic analysis -
stability compensation - generation and absorption of reactive power. Relation between voltage,
power and reactive power at a node - method of voltage control - tap-changing transformer. System
level control using generator voltage magnitude setting, tap setting of OLTC transformer and
MVAR injection of switched capacitors to maintain acceptable voltage profile and to minimize
UNIT IV UNIT COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH
Statement of economic dispatch problem – cost of generation – incremental cost curve co-ordination
equations without loss and with loss, solution by direct method and λ-iteration method. (No
derivation of loss coefficients). Statement of Unit Commitment problem – constraints; spinning
reserve, thermal unit constraints, hydro constraints, fuel constraints and other constraints. Solution
methods - Priority-list methods - forward dynamic programming approach. Numerical
problems only in priority-list method using full-load average production cost.
UNIT V COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS
Need of computer control of power systems. Concept of energy control centre (or) load dispatch
centre and the functions - system monitoring - data acquisition and control. System hardware
configuration – SCADA and EMS functions. Network topology - state estimation - security analysis
and control. Various operating states (Normal, alert, emergency, in-extremis and restorative). State
transition diagram showing various state transitions and control strategies.
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