CS 2253 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE Lecture Notes Common to CSE & IT Departments
CS2253 Lecture Notes
UNIT I BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS
Functional units – Basic operational concepts – Bus structures – Performance and
metrics – Instructions and instruction sequencing – Hardware – Software Interface –
Instruction set architecture – Addressing modes – RISC – CISC. ALU design – Fixed
point and floating point operations.
UNIT II BASIC PROCESSING UNIT
Fundamental concepts – Execution of a complete instruction – Multiple bus organization
– Hardwired control – Micro programmed control – Nano programming.
UNIT III PIPELINING
Basic concepts – Data hazards – Instruction hazards – Influence on instruction sets –
Data path and control considerations – Performance considerations – Exception
UNIT IV MEMORY SYSTEM
Basic concepts – Semiconductor RAM – ROM – Speed – Size and cost – Cache
memories – Improving cache performance – Virtual memory – Memory management
requirements – Associative memories – Secondary storage devices.
UNIT V I/O ORGANIZATION
Accessing I/O devices – Programmed Input/Output -Interrupts – Direct Memory Access
– Buses – Interface circuits – Standard I/O Interfaces (PCI, SCSI, USB), I/O devices and
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