Monday, July 2, 2012
BM 2251 BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION Lecture Notes for BME - Fourth (4th) semester
BM2251 Lecture Notes
Origin of bio potential and its propagation. Electrode-electrolyte interface, electrode–skin
interface, half cell potential, impedance, polarization effects of electrode – nonpolarizable
electrodes. Types of electrodes - surface, needle and micro electrodes and their
equivalent circuits. Recording problems - measurement with two electrodes.
UNIT II ELECTRODE CONFIGURATIONS
Biosignals characteristics – frequency and amplitude ranges. ECG – Einthoven’s triangle,
standard 12 lead system. EEG – 10-20 electrode system, unipolar, bipolar and average
mode. EMG, ERG and EOG – unipolar and bipolar mode.
UNIT III BIO AMPLIFIER
Need for bio-amplifier - single ended bio-amplifier, differential bio-amplifier – right leg
driven ECG amplifier. Band pass filtering, isolation amplifiers – transformer and optical
isolation - isolated DC amplifier and AC carrier amplifier. Chopper amplifier. Power line
UNIT IV MEASUREMENT OF NON-ELECTRICAL PARAMETER
Temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate measurements. Blood Pressure: indirect
methods - auscultatory method, oscillometric method, direct methods: electronic
manometer, Pressure amplifiers - systolic, diastolic, mean detector circuit.
Blood flow and cardiac output measurement: Indicator dilution, thermal dilution and dye
dilution method, Electromagnetic and ultrasound blood flow measurement.
UNIT V BIO-CHEMICAL MEASUREMENT
Biochemical sensors - pH, pO2 and pCo2, Ion selective Field effect Transistor (ISFET),
Immunologically sensitive FET (IMFET), Blood glucose sensors - Blood gas analyzers,
colorimeter, flame photometer, spectrophotometer, blood cell counter, auto analyzer
(simplified schematic description).
Anna University Nov/Dec 2012 Timetable Result
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