BM 2205 BIOCHEMISTRY Lecture Notes for BME - Third (3rd) semester
BM2205 Lecture Notes
UNIT I 6
Introduction to biochemistry – Biomolecules, structure of water & its importance –
Important noncovalent forces – Hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, hydrophobic & vanderwaals
forces – Acid, base & buffers – pH, Henderson Hasselbalch equation. Biological buffers
and their significance – Principle of viscosity – surface tension , adsorption, diffusion,
osmosis & their applications in biological systems.
Classification, structure & properties of carbohydrates – mono, di , oligo &
polysaccharides. Classification, structure & properties of amino acids & proteins.
Classification, structure & properties of Lipids – Simple lipids , Phospholipids , glycolipids
& steroids . Transport of lipids: Lipoproteins Structure & functions of nucleic acids –
Nucleosides , nucleotides – Cyclic AMP , cyclic GMP , ATP , GTP – DNA & RNA
Classification of Enzymes, Chemical nature, Active Site, Specificity of Enzyme catalyzed
reactions, Regulation : Feedback , Allosteric , Covalent modification , Hormonal regulation,
co-enzymes. Assay of enzymes, enzymes in clinical diagnosis of diseases. Introduction to
Metabolism: Carbohydrate metabolism, Glycolysis
Lipid metabolism : fatty acid, beta oxidation , ketogenesis and cholesterol metabolism.
TCA cycle : Structure of biological membranes, electron transport & Oxidative
Liver function and liver function tests, Kidney function and kidney function tests , normal &
abnormal constituents of urine and their clinical significance. General characteristics of
hormones. Structure , functions & disorders of thyroid , parathyroid , pituitary ,adrenal and
pancreatic hormones. Hormones as chemical messengers: General assay of hormones –
Bio assay , chemical assay & immuno assays.
Analytical techniques: Principle and applications of electrophoresis – PAGE , SDS PAGE ,
Isoelectric focusing , Two Dimensional Electrophoresis. Chromatography: Principle of
adsorption & partition chromatography, Size exclusion , Ion exchange & affinity
chromatography. Spectro photometry, fluorimetry, flame photometry, manometry ,
microcalorimetry , electrochemical methods, biosensors , automation in clinical laboratory ,
use of radio isotopes in biochemistry.