## MA2264 NUMERICAL METHODS

(Common to Civil, Aero & EEE)
AIM [ With the present development of the computer technology, it is necessary to develop efficient
algorithms for solving problems in science, engineering and technology. This course gives a
complete procedure for solving different kinds of problems occur in engineering numerically.
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the course, the students would be acquainted with the basic concepts in
numerical methods and their uses are summarized as follows:
i. The roots of nonlinear (algebraic or transcendental) equations, solutions of large system of
linear equations and eigen value problem of a matrix can be obtained numerically where
analytical methods fail to give solution.
ii. When huge amounts of experimental data are involved, the methods discussed on interpolation
will be useful in constructing approximate polynomial to represent the data and to find the
intermediate values.
iii. The numerical differentiation and integration find application when the function in the analytical
form is too complicated or the huge amounts of data are given such as series of
measurements, observations or some other empirical information.
iv. Since many physical laws are couched in terms of rate of change of one/two or more
independent variables, most of the engineering problems are characterized in the form of either
nonlinear ordinary differential equations or partial differential equations. The methods
introduced in the solution of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations will
be useful in attempting any engineering problem.

### UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 9

Solution of equation - Fixed point iteration: x=g(x) method – Newton’s method – Solution of linear
system by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordon methods - Iterative methods - Gauss-Seidel
methods - Inverse of a matrix by Gauss Jordon method – Eigen value of a matrix by power method
and by Jacobi method for symmetric matrix.

### UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION 9

Lagrangian Polynomials – Divided differences – Interpolating with a cubic spline – Newton’s forward
and backward difference formulas.

### UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 9

Differentiation using interpolation formulae –Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s 1/3
and 3/8 rules – Romberg’s method – Two and Three point Gaussian quadrature formulas – Double
integrals using trapezoidal and Simpsons’s rules.
37

### UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIALEQUATIONS 9

Single step methods: Taylor series method – Euler methods for First order Runge – Kutta method for
solving first and second order equations – Multistep methods: Milne’s and Adam’s predictor and
corrector methods.

### UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIALDIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9

Finite difference solution of second order ordinary differential equation – Finite difference solution of
one dimensional heat equation by explicit and implicit methods – One dimensional wave equation
and two dimensional Laplace and Poisson equations.
L = 45 T = 15 TOTAL = 60 PERIODS

#### TEXT BOOKS

1. VEERARJAN, T and RAMACHANDRAN.T, ‘NUMERICAL METHODS with programming in ‘C’
Second Edition Tata McGraw Hill Pub.Co.Ltd, First reprint 2007.
2. SANKAR RAO K’ NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS –3rd Edition
Princtice Hall of India Private, New Delhi, 2007.

#### REFERENCES

1. P. Kandasamy, K. Thilagavathy and K. Gunavathy, ‘Numerical Methods’, S.Chand Co. Ltd., New
Delhi, 2003.
2. GERALD C.F. and WHEATE, P.O. ‘APPLIED NUMERICAL ANALYSIS’… Edition, Pearson
Education Asia, New Delhi.
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