GE2021 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING lecture notes (Common to Civil, ECE, EEE, CSE, IT & Biomedical Degree Programmes) by R.Anirudhan
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UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
Definition, scope and importance of environment – need for public awareness - concept
of an ecosystem – structure and function of an ecosystem – producers, consumers and
decomposers – energy flow in the ecosystem – ecological succession – food chains,
food webs and ecological pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic features,
structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert
ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) –
Introduction to biodiversity definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity –
biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use,
productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global,
national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity –
threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts –
endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and exsitu
conservation of biodiversity.
Field study of common plants, insects, birds
Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
UNIT II ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Definition – causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution
(c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear
hazards – soil waste management: causes, effects and control measures of municipal
solid wastes – role of an individual in prevention of pollution – pollution case studies –
disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Field study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural.
UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES
Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies- timber
extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people – Water
resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought,
conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems – Mineral resources: Use and
exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case
studies – Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and
overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging,
salinity, case studies – Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non
renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. case studies – Land
resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion
and desertification – role of an individual in conservation of natural resources – Equitable
use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – river / forest / grassland /
hill / mountain.
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
From unsustainable to sustainable development – urban problems related to energy –
water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – resettlement and
rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies – role of nongovernmental
organization- environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions –
climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and
holocaust, case studies. – wasteland reclamation – consumerism and waste products –
environment production act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act – Water
(Prevention and control of Pollution) act – Wildlife protection act – Forest conservation
act – enforcement machinery involved in environmental legislation- central and state
pollution control boards- Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Population growth, variation among nations – population explosion – family welfare
programme – environment and human health – human rights – value education – HIV /
AIDS – women and child welfare – role of information technology in environment and
human health – Case studies.