SEMESTER VII |

(Applicable to the students admitted from the Academic year 2008 – 2009 onwards)

SL. | COURSE | COURSE TITLE | L | T | P | C | ||

No. | CODE | |||||||

THEORY | ||||||||

1. | EE2401 | Power System Operation and Control | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

2. | EE2402 | Protection & Switchgear | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

3. | EE2403 | Special Electrical Machines | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

4. | MG2351 | Principles of Management | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

5. | CS2411 | Operating Systems | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

6. | Elective – II | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | |||

PRACTICAL | ||||||||

1. | EE2404 | Power System Simulation Laboratory | 0 | 0 | 3 | 2 | ||

2. | EE2405 | Comprehension | 0 | 0 | 2 | 1 | ||

TOTAL | 18 | 0 | 5 | 21 |

ELECTIVE II | ||||||||

7. | EE2024 | Bio-Medical Instrumentation | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

8. | EE2025 | Intelligent Control | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

9. | EE2026 | Power System Dynamics | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 | ||

10. | CS2022 | Computer Architecture | 3 | 1 | 0 | 4 | ||

11. | GE2022 | Total Quality Management | 3 | 0 | 0 | 3 |

EE2401 | POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL | L T P C |

3 0 0 3 |

**AIM:**To understand the day to day operation of power system and the control actions

**to be implemented on the system to meet the minute-to-minute variation of system load demand.**

**OBJECTIVES:**

· To have an overview of power system operation and control.

· To model power-frequency dynamics and to design power-frequency controller.

· To model reactive power-voltage interaction and the control actions to be implemented for maintaining the voltage profile against varying system load.

**UNIT I INTRODUCTION**

**9**

System load – variation - load characteristics - load curves and load-duration curve (daily, weekly and annual) - load factor - diversity factor. Importance of load forecasting and simple techniques of forecasting. An overview of power system operation and control and the role of computers in the implementation. (Qualitative treatment with block diagram).

**UNIT II REAL POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL**

**9**

Basics of speed governing mechanism and modeling - speed-load characteristics – load sharing between two synchronous machines in parallel. Control area concept LFC control of a single-area system. Static and dynamic analysis of uncontrolled and controlled cases. Integration of economic dispatch control with LFC. Two-area system – modeling - static analysis of uncontrolled case - tie line with frequency bias control of two-area system - state variable model.

**UNIT III REACTIVE POWER–VOLTAGE CONTROL**

**9**

Basics of reactive power control. Excitation systems – modeling. Static and dynamic analysis - stability compensation - generation and absorption of reactive power. Relation between voltage, power and reactive power at a node - method of voltage control - tap-changing transformer. System level control using generator voltage magnitude setting, tap setting of OLTC transformer and MVAR injection of switched capacitors to maintain acceptable voltage profile and to minimize transmission loss.

**UNIT IV COMMITMENT AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH**

**9**

Statement of economic dispatch problem – cost of generation – incremental cost curve - co-ordination equations without loss and with loss, solution by direct method and Î»-iteration method. (No derivation of loss coefficients).

Statement of Unit Commitment problem – constraints; spinning reserve, thermal unit constraints, hydro constraints, fuel constraints and other constraints. Solution methods - Priority-list methods - forward dynamic programming approach. Numerical problems only in priority-list method using full-load average production cost.

**UNIT V COMPUTER CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS**

**9**

Need of computer control of power systems. Concept of energy control centre (or) load dispatch centre and the functions - system monitoring - data acquisition and control. System hardware configuration – SCADA and EMS functions. Network topology - state estimation - security analysis and control. Various operating states (Normal, alert, emergency, in-extremis and restorative). State transition diagram showing various state transitions and control strategies.

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Allen. J. Wood and Bruce F. Wollenberg, ‘Power Generation, Operation and Control’, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.

2. Chakrabarti & Halder, “Power System Analysis: Operation and Control”, Prentice Hall of India, 2004 Edition.

**REFERENCES**

1. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, ‘Modern Power System Analysis’, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2003. (For Chapters 1, 2 & 3)

2. L.L. Grigsby, ‘The Electric Power Engineering, Hand Book’, CRC Press & IEEE Press, 2001.

3. Hadi Saadat, “Power System Analysis”, (For the chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4)11

^{th}Reprint 2007.4. P.Kundur, ‘Power System Stability and Control’ MC Craw Hill Publisher, USA, 1994.

5. Olle.I.Elgerd, ‘Electric Energy Systems theory An introduction’ Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi, Second Edition 2003.

EE2402 | PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR | L T P C |

3 0 0 3 |

**AIM:**To introduce the students to the various abnormal operating conditions in power

**system and describe the apparatus and system protection schemes. Also to describe the phenomena of current interruption to study the various switchgears.**

**OBJECTIVES:**

· To discuss the causes of abnormal operating conditions (faults, lightning and switching surges) of the apparatus and system.

· To understand the characteristics and functions of relays and protection schemes.

· To understand the problems associated with circuit interruption by a circuit breaker.

**UNIT I INTRODUCTION**

**9**

Importance of protective schemes for electrical apparatus and power system. Qualitative review of faults and fault currents - relay terminology – definitions - and essential qualities of protection.

Protection against over voltages due to lightning and switching - arcing grounds - Peterson Coil - ground wires - surge absorber and diverters

Power System earthing – neutral Earthing - basic ideas of insulation coordination. | |

UNIT II OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND RELAY CHARACTERISTICS | 9 |

Electromagnetic relays – over current, directional and non-directional, distance, negative sequence, differential and under frequency relays – Introduction to static relays.

**UNIT III APPARATUS PROTECTION**

**9**

Main considerations in apparatus protection - transformer, generator and motor protection - protection of busbars. Transmission line protection - zones of protection. CTs and PTs and their applications in protection schemes.

**UNIT IV THEORY OF CIRCUIT INTERRUPTION**

**9**

Physics of arc phenomena and arc interruption. DC and AC circuit breaking - restriking voltage and recovery voltage - rate of rise of recovery voltage - resistance switching - current chopping - interruption of capacitive current.

**UNIT V CIRCUIT BREAKERS**

**9**

Types of circuit breakers – air blast, air break, oil, SF

_{6}and vacuum circuit breakers – comparative merits of different circuit breakers – testing of circuit breakers.**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. M.L. Soni, P.V. Gupta, V.S. Bhatnagar, A. Chakrabarti, ‘A Text Book on Power System Engineering’, Dhanpat Rai & Co., 1998. (For All Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5).

2

**.**R.K.Rajput, A Tex book of Power System Engineering. Laxmi Publications, First Edition Reprint 2007.**REFERENCES**

1. Sunil S. Rao, ‘Switchgear and Protection’, Khanna publishers, New Delhi, 1986.

2. C.L. Wadhwa, ‘Electrical Power Systems’, Newage International (P) Ltd., 2000.

3. B. Ravindranath, and N. Chander, ‘Power System Protection & Switchgear’, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1977.

4. Badri Ram, Vishwakarma, ‘Power System Protection and Switchgear’, Tata McGraw Hill, 2001.

5. Y.G. Paithankar and S.R. Bhide, ‘Fundamentals of Power System Protection’, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi–110001, 2003.

EE 2403 | SPECIAL ELECTRICAL MACHINES | L T P C |

3 0 0 3 |

**AIM**

To expose the students to the construction, principle of operation and performance of special electrical machines as an extension to the study of basic electrical machines.

**OBJECTIVES**

To impart knowledge on

· Construction, principle of operation and performance of synchronous reluctance motors.

· Construction, principle of operation, control and performance of stepping motors.

· Construction, principle of operation, control and performance of switched reluctance motors.

· Construction, principle of operation, control and performance of permanent magnet brushless D.C. motors.

· Construction, principle of operation and performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors.

**UNIT I SYNCHRONOUS RELUCTANCE MOTORS**

**9**

Constructional features – Types – Axial and Radial flux motors – Operating principles – Variable Reluctance and Hybrid Motors – SYNREL Motors – Voltage and Torque Equations - Phasor diagram - Characteristics.

**UNIT II STEPPING MOTORS**

**9**

Constructional features – Principle of operation – Variable reluctance motor – Hybrid motor – Single and multi stack configurations – Torque equations – Modes of excitations – Characteristics – Drive circuits – Microprocessor control of stepping motors – Closed loop control.

**UNIT III SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS**

**9**

Constructional features – Rotary and Linear SRMs - Principle of operation – Torque production – Steady state performance prediction- Analytical method -Power Converters and their controllers – Methods of Rotor position sensing – Sensorless operation – Closed loop control of SRM - Characteristics.

**UNIT IV PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS D.C. MOTORS**

**9**

Permanent Magnet materials – Magnetic Characteristics – Permeance coefficient - Principle of operation – Types – Magnetic circuit analysis – EMF and torque equations – Commutation - Power controllers – Motor characteristics and control.

**UNIT V PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS**

**9**

Principle of operation – Ideal PMSM – EMF and Torque equations – Armature reaction MMF – Synchronous Reactance – Sinewave motor with practical windings - Phasor diagram – Torque/speed characteristics - Power controllers - Converter Volt-ampere requirements.

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. T.J.E. Miller, ‘Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives’, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.

2. T. Kenjo, ‘Stepping Motors and Their Microprocessor Controls’, Clarendon Press London, 1984.

**REFERENCES**

1. R.Krishnan, ‘Switched Reluctance Motor Drives – Modeling, Simulation, Analysis, Design and Application’, CRC Press, New York, 2001.

2. P.P. Aearnley, ‘Stepping Motors – A Guide to Motor Theory and Practice’, Peter Perengrinus, London, 1982.

3. T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, ‘Permanent Magnet and Brushless DC Motors’, Clarendon Press, London, 1988.

MG2351 | PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT | L T P C |

3 0 0 3 | ||

UNIT I | OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT | 9 |

Definition - Management - Role of managers - Evolution of Management thought - Organization and the environmental factors – Trends and Challenges of Management in Global Scenario.

UNIT II | PLANNING | 9 |

Nature and purpose of planning - Planning process - Types of plans – Objectives - | - |

Managing by objective (MBO) Strategies - Types of strategies - Policies - Decision Making - Types of decision - Decision Making Process - Rational Decision Making Process - Decision Making under different conditions.

**UNIT III**

**ORGANIZING**

**9**

Nature and purpose of organizing - Organization structure - Formal and informal groups

*I*organization - Line and Staff authority - Departmentation - Span of control - Centralization and Decentralization - Delegation of authority - Staffing - Selection andRecruitment - Orientation - Career Development - Career stages – Training - | - | ||

Performance Appraisal. | |||

UNIT IV | DIRECTING | 9 | |

Creativity | and Innovation | - Motivation and Satisfaction - Motivation Theories | - |

Leadership Styles - Leadership theories - Communication - Barriers to effective communication - Organization Culture - Elements and types of culture - Managing cultural diversity.

**UNIT V**

**CONTROLLING**

**9**

Process of controlling - Types of control - Budgetary and non-budgetary control techniques - Managing Productivity - Cost Control - Purchase Control - Maintenance Control - Quality Control - Planning operations.

**TOTAL= 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS:**

1. Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter, 'Management', Prentice Hall of India, 8th edition.

2. Charles W L Hill, Steven L McShane, 'Principles of Management', Mcgraw Hill Education, Special Indian Edition, 2007.

**REFERENCES:**

1. Hellriegel, Slocum & Jackson, ' Management - A Competency Based Approach’, Thomson South Western, 10th edition, 2007.

2. Harold Koontz, Heinz Weihrich and Mark V Cannice, 'Management - A global & Entrepreneurial Perspective', Tata Mcgraw Hill, 12th edition, 2007.

3. Andrew J. Dubrin, 'Essentials of Management', Thomson Southwestern, 7th edition, 2007.

CS2411 | OPERATING SYSTEMS | L T P C |

3 0 0 3 |

**AIM:**To learn the various aspects of operating systems such as process management,

**memory management, file systems, and I/O management**

**UNIT I PROCESSES AND THREADS**

**9**

Introduction to operating systems – review of computer organization – operating system structures – system calls – system programs – system structure – virtual machines. Processes: Process concept – Process scheduling – Operations on processes – Cooperating processes – Interprocess communication – Communication in client-server systems. Case study: IPC in Linux. Threads: Multi-threading models – Threading issues. Case Study: Pthreads library

**UNIT II PROCESS SCHEDULING AND SYNCHRONIZATION**

**10**

CPU Scheduling: Scheduling criteria – Scheduling algorithms – Multiple-processor scheduling – Real time scheduling – Algorithm Evaluation. Case study: Process scheduling in Linux. Process Synchronization: The critical-section problem – Synchronization hardware – Semaphores – Classic problems of synchronization – critical regions – Monitors. Deadlock: System model – Deadlock characterization – Methods for handling deadlocks – Deadlock prevention – Deadlock avoidance – Deadlock detection – Recovery from deadlock.

**UNIT III STORAGE MANAGEMENT**

**9**

Memory Management: Background – Swapping – Contiguous memory allocation – Paging – Segmentation – Segmentation with paging. Virtual Memory:Background – Demand paging – Process creation – Page replacement –Allocation of frames – Thrashing. Case Study: Memory management in Linux

**UNIT IV FILE SYSTEMS**

**9**

File-System Interface: File concept – Access methods – Directory structure –File-system mounting – Protection. File-System Implementation : Directory implementation – Allocation methods – Free-space management – efficiency and performance – recovery – log-structured file systems. Case studies: File system in Linux – file system in Windows XP

**UNIT V**

**I/O SYSTEMS**

**8**

I/O Systems – I/O Hardware – Application I/O interface – kernel I/O subsystem – streams – performance. Mass-Storage Structure: Disk scheduling – Disk management – Swap-space management – RAID – disk attachment – stable storage – tertiary storage. Case study: I/O in Linux

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**TEXT BOOKS**

1. Silberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne, “Operating System Concepts”, Sixth Edition, Wiley India Pvt Ltd, 2003.

2. D. M. Dhamdhere, “Operating Systems: A concepts based approach”, Second Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2006.

**REFERENCES**

1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Modern Operating Systems”, Second Edition, Pearson Education/PHI, 2001.

2. Harvey M. Deital, “Operating Systems”, Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.

EE2404 | POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LABORATORY | L T P C |

0 0 3 2 |

**AIM**

To acquire software development skills and experience in the usage of standard packages necessary for analysis and simulation of power system required for its planning, operation and control.

**OBJECTIVES**

i. To develop simple C programs for the following basic requirements:

a) Formation of bus admittance and impedance matrices and network solution.

b) Power flow solution of small systems using simple method, Gauss-Seidel P.F. method.

c) Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch.

iii. To acquire experience in the usage of standard packages for the following analysis / simulation / control functions.

a) Steady-state analysis of large system using NRPF and FDPF methods.

b) Quasi steady-state (Fault) analysis for balanced and unbalanced faults.

c) Transient stability simulation of multimachine power system.

d) Simulation of Load-Frequency Dynamics and control of power system.

1. Computation of Parameters and Modelling of Transmission Lines

2. Formation of Bus Admittance and Impedance Matrices and Solution of Networks.

3. Load Flow Analysis - I : Solution of Load Flow And Related Problems Using Gauss-Seidel Method

4. Load Flow Analysis - II: Solution of Load Flow and Related Problems Using Newton-Raphson and Fast-Decoupled Methods

5. Fault Analysis

6. Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis: Single-Machine Infinite Bus System

7. Transient Stability Analysis of Multimachine Power Systems

8. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Systems

9. Load – Frequency Dynamics of Single- Area and Two-Area Power Systems

10. Economic Dispatch in Power Systems.

**TOTAL : 45 PERIODS**

**Detailed Syllabus**

**1.**

**COMPUTATION OF PARAMETERS AND MODELLING OF TRANSMISSION LINES**

**Aim**

(i) To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometer of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements.

(ii) To understand modelling and performance of short, medium and long lines.

**Exercises**

1.1 Computation of series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase per km of a three phase line with flat horizontal spacing for single stranded and bundle conductor configuration.

1.2 Computation of series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase per km of a three phase double circuit transmission line with vertical conductor arrangement with bundle conductor.

1.3 Computation of voltage, current, power factor, regulation and efficiency at the receiving end of a three phase Transmission line when the voltage and power at the sending end are given. Use ÐŸ model.

1.4 Computation of receiving end voltage of a long transmission for a given sending end voltage and when the line is open circuited at receiving. Also compute the shunt reactor compensation to limit the no load receiving end voltage to specified value.

1.5 Determination of the voltage profile along the long transmission line for the following cases of loading at receiving end (i) no load (ii) rated load (iii) surge impedance loading and (iv) receiving end short circuited.

**2. FORMATION OF BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES AND SOLUTION OF NETWORKS**

**Aim**

To understand the formation of network matrices, the bus admittance matrix

**Y**and the bus impedance matrix**Z**of a power network, to effect certain required changes on these matrices and to obtain network solution using these matrices.**Exercises**

2.1 Write a program in C language for formation of bus admittance matrix

**Y**of a power network using the “Two-Rule Method”, given the data pertaining to the transmission lines, transformers and shunt elements. Run the program for a sample 6 bus system and compare the results with that obtained using a standard software.2.2 Modify the program developed in 2.1 for the following:

(i) To obtain modified

**Y**matrix for the outage of a transmission line, a Transformer and a shunt element.(ii) To obtain network solution

**V**given the current injection vector**I**(iii) To obtain full

**Z**matrix or certain specified columns of**Z**matrix.Verify the correctness of the modified program using 6 bus sample system

* 2.3 Write a program in C language for forming bus impedance matrix

**Z**using the “Building Algorithm”.* Optional (not mandatory)

**EXPERIMENT 3**

**LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS - I : SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING GAUSS-SEIDEL METHOD**

**Aim**

(i) To understand, the basic aspects of steady state analysis of power systems that are required for effective planning and operation of power systems.

(ii) To understand, in particular, the mathematical formulation of load flow model in complex form and a simple method of solving load flow problems of small sized system using Gauss-Seidel iterative algorithm

**Exercises**

3.1 Write a program in c language for iteratively solving load flow equations using Gauss-Seidel method with provision for acceleration factor and for dealing with P-V buses. Run the program for a sample 6 bus system (Base case) and compare the results with that obtained using a standard software.

3.2 Solve the “Base case” in 3.1 for different values of acceleration factor, draw the convergence characteristics “Iteration taken for convergence versus acceleration factor” and determine the best acceleration factor for the system under study.

3.3 Solve the “Base Case” in 3.1 for the following changed conditions and comment on the results obtained, namely voltage magnitude of the load buses and transmission losses:

(i) Dropping all shunt capacitors connected to network

(ii) Changing the voltage setting of generators V

_{gi}over the range 1.00 to 1.05(iii) Changing the tap setting of the transformers, a

_{i}, over the range 0.85 to 1.13.4 Resolve the base case in 3.1 after shifting generation from one generator bus to another generator bus and comment on the MW loading of lines and transformers.

**4.**

**LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS – I: SOLUTION OF LOAD FLOW AND RELATED PROBLEMS USING NEWTON-RAPHSON AND FAST DECOUPLED METHODS**

**Aim**

(i) To understand the following for medium and large scale power systems:

(a) Mathematical formulation of the load flow problem in real variable form

(b) Newton-Raphson method of load flow (NRLF) solution

(c) Fast Decoupled method of load flow (FDLF) solution

(ii) To become proficient in the usage of software for practical problem solving in the areas of power system planning and operation.

(iii) To become proficient in the usage of the software in solving problems using Newton-Raphson and Fast Decoupled load flow methods.

**Exercises**

4.1 Solve the load flow problem (Base case) of a sample 6 bus system using Gauss-Seidel, Fast Decoupled and Newton-Raphson Load Flow programs for a mismatch convergence tolerance of 0.01 MW, plot the convergence characteristics and compare the convergence rate of the three methods.

4.2 Obtain an optimal (minimum transmission loss) load flow solution for the Base case loading of 6 bus sample system by trial and error approach through repeated load flow solutions using Fast Decoupled Load Flow package for different combinations of generator voltage settings, transformer tap settings, and reactive power of shunt elements.

4.3 Carry out contingency analysis on the optimal state obtained in 4.2 for outage of a transmission line using FDLF or NRLF package.

4.4 Obtain load flow solutions using FDLF or NRLF package on the optimal state obtained in 4.2 but with reduced power factor (increased Q load) load and comment on the system voltage profile and transmission loss.

4.5 Determine the maximum loadability of a 2 bus system using analytical solution as well as numerical solution using FDLF package. Draw the P-V curve of the system.

4.6 For the base case operating state of the 6 bus system in 4.1 draw the P-V curve for the weakest load bus. Also obtain the voltage Stability Margin (MW Index) at different operating states of the system.

4.7 For the optimal operating state of 6 bus system obtained in 4.2 determine the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) between a given “source bus” and a given “s

**5. FAULT ANALYSIS**

**Aim**

To become familiar with modelling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition and to compute the fault level, post-fault voltages and currents for different types of faults, both symmetric and unsymmetric.

**Exercises**

5.1 Calculate the fault current, post fault voltage and fault current through the branches for a three phase to ground fault in a small power system and also study the effect of neighbouring system. Check the results using available software.

5.2 Obtain the fault current, fault MVA, Post-fault bus voltages and fault current distribution for single line to ground fault, line-to-line fault and double line to ground fault for a small power system, using the available software. Also check the fault current and fault MVA by hand calculation.

5.3 Carryout fault analysis for a sample power system for LLLG, LG, LL and LLG faults and prepare the report.

**6.**

**TRANSIENT AND SMALL-SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS: SINGLE MACHINE-INFINITE BUS SYSTEM**

**Aim**

To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.

**Exercises**

For a typical power system comprising a generating, step-up transformer, double-circuit transmission line connected to infinite bus:

Transient Stability Analysis

6.1 Hand calculation of the initial conditions necessary for the classical model of the synchronous machine.

6.2 Hand computation of critical clearing angle and time for the fault using equal area criterion.

6.3 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening of one circuit using the software available and checking stability by plotting the swing curve.

6.4 Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through trial and error method using the software and checking with the hand computed value.

6.5 Repetition of the above for different fault locations and assessing the fault severity with respect to the location of fault

6.6 Determination of the steady-state and transient stability margins.

Small-signal Stability Analysis:

6.7 Familiarity with linearised swing equation and characteristic equation and its roots, damped frequency of oscillation in Hz, damping ratio and undamped natural frequency.

6.8 Force-free time response for an initial condition using the available software.

6.9 Effect of positive, negative and zero damping.

**7. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS**

**Aim**

To become familiar with modelling aspects of synchronous machines and network, state-of-the-art algorithm for simplified transient stability simulation, system behaviour when subjected to large disturbances in the presence of synchronous machine controllers and to become proficient in the usage of the software to tackle real life problems encountered in the areas of power system planning and operation.

**Exercises**

For typical multi-machine power system:

7.1 Simulation of typical disturbance sequence: fault application, fault clearance by opening of a line using the software available and assessing stability with and without controllers.

7.2 Determination of critical clearing angle and time for the above fault sequence through trial and error method using the software.

7.3 Determination of transient stability margins.

7.4 Simulation of full load rejection with and without governor.

7.5 Simulation of loss of generation with and without governor.

7.6 Simulation of loss of excitation (optional).

7.7 Simulation of under frequency load shedding scheme (optional).

**8. ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS IN POWER SYSTEMS**

**Aim**

To study and understand the electromagnetic transient phenomena in power systems caused due to switching and faults by using Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and to become proficient in the usage of EMTP to address problems in the areas of over voltage protection and mitigation and insulation coordination of EHV systems.

**Exercises**

Using the EMTP software or equivalent

Simulation of single-phase energisation of the load through single-phase pi-model of a transmission line and understanding the effect of source inductance.

8.1 Simulation of three-phase energisation of the load through three-phase pi-model of a transmission line and understanding the effect of pole discrepancy of a circuit breaker.

8.2 Simulation of energisation of an open-ended single-phase distributed parameter transmission line and understanding the travelling wave effects.

8.3 Simulation of a three-phase load energisation through a three-phase distributed parameter line with simultaneous and asynchronous closing of circuit breaker and studying the effects.

8.4 Study of transients due to single line-to-ground fault.

8.5 Computation of transient recovery voltage.

**9.**

**LOAD-FREQUENCY DYNAMICS OF SINGLE-AREA AND TWO-AREA POWER SYSTEMS**

**Aim**

To become familiar with the modelling and analysis of load-frequency and tie-line flow dynamics of a power system with load-frequency controller (LFC) under different control modes and to design improved controllers to obtain the best system response.

**Exercises**

9.1 Given the data for a Single-Area power system, simulate the load-frequency dynamics (only governor control) of this area for a step load disturbance of small magnitude, plot the time response of frequency deviation and the corresponding change in turbine power. Check the value of steady state frequency deviation obtained from simulation with that obtained by hand calculation.

9.2 Carry out the simulation of load-frequency dynamics of the Single-Area power system in 9.1 with Load-frequency controller (Integral controller) for different values of K

_{I}(gain of the controller) and choose the best value of K_{I}to give an “optimal” response with regard to peak over shoot, settling time, steady-state error and Mean-Sum-Squared-Error.9.3 Given the data for a two-area (identical areas) power system, simulate the load-frequency dynamics (only governor control) of this system for a step load disturbance in one area and plot time response of frequency deviation, turbine power deviation and tie-line power deviation. Compare the steady-state frequency deviation obtained with that obtained in the case of single-area system.

9.4 Carry out the simulation of load-frequency dynamics of two-area system in 9.3 for the following control modes:

(i) Flat tie-line control

(ii) Flat frequency control

(iii) Frequency bias tie-line control

and for the frequency bias Tie-line control mode, determine the optimal values of gain and frequency bias factor required to get the “best” time response.

9.5 Given the data for a two-area (unequal areas) power system, determine the best controller parameters; gains and bias factors to give an optimal response for frequency deviation and tie-line deviations with regard to peak overshoot, settling

time, steady-state error and Mean-Sum-Squared-Error.

**10. ECONOMIC DISPATCH IN POWER SYSTEMS**

**Aim**

(i) To understand the basics of the problem of Economic Dispatch (ED) of optimally adjusting the generation schedules of thermal generating units to meet the system load which are required for unit commitment and economic operation of power systems.

(ii) To understand the development of coordination equations (the mathematical model for ED) without and with losses and operating constraints and solution of these

equations using direct and iterative methods

**Exercises**

10.1. Write a program in ‘C’ language to solve economic dispatch problem of a power system with only thermal units. Take production cost function as quadratic and neglect transmission loss.

10.2. Write a program in ‘C’ language to solve economic dispatch problem of a power system. Take production cost as quadratic and include transmission loss using loss co-efficient. Use Î»-iteration algorithm for solving the co-ordination equations.

10.3. Determine using the program developed in exercise 10.1 the economic generation schedule of each unit and incremental cost of received power for a sample power system, for a given load cycle.

10.4. Determine using the program developed in exercise 10.2 the economic generation schedule of each unit, incremental cost of received power and transmission loss for a sample system, for the given load levels.

10.5. Apply the software module developed in 10.1 to obtain an optimum unit commitment schedule for a few load levels.

**REQUIREMENT FOR A BATCH OF 30 STUDENTS**

S.No. | Description of Equipment | Quantity |

required | ||

1. | Personal computers (Pentium-IV, 80GB, 512 | 25 |

MBRAM) | ||

2. | Printer laser | 1 |

3. | Dotmatrix | 1 |

4. | Server (Pentium IV, 80GB, 1GBRAM) (High | 1 |

Speed Processor) | ||

5. | Software: E.M.T.P/ETAP/CYME/MIPOWER | 5 licenses |

/any power system simulation software | ||

6. | Compliers: C, C++, VB, VC++ | 25 users |

EE 2405 | COMPREHENSION | L T P C |

0 0 2 1 |

**AIM:**

To encourage the students to comprehend the knowledge acquired from the first Semester to Sixth Semester of B.E Degree Course through periodic exercise.

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