UNIT I - ELECTROCHEMISTRY
1. What are the types of electrolytes? Give an example for each type.
2. What is the difference between metallic and electrolytic conduction?
3. What are single and Std. Electrode potentials?
4. What is Nernst equation? Discuss the terms involved.
5. Calculate the electrode potential of Zinc electrode dipped in 0.1M zinc sulphate solution at 250 C.
6. Bring out the symbolic representation of SHE. What are its limitations?
7. What are secondary reference electrodes? Discuss about a calomel electrode.
8. Give the symbol, diagram and reactions of a calomel electrode.
9. Define emf series. Bring out any four elements and their E0 values.
10. How will you predict the spontaneity of a reaction using emf series?
11. Zinc displaces H2 from HCl but Cu does not. Why?
12. What is galvanic series? What are the significance of it?
13. Discuss the rules to be followed while representing a cell.
14. What is the difference between electrochemical and electrolytic cells?
15. What is potentiometric titration?
16. What is conductometric titration?
17. What is standard electrode?
18. Define ion selective electrodes?
19. What are the conditions for a cell to be a reversible one?
20. Differentiate electrolytic and electrochemical cell.
UNIT – II CORROSION AND ITS CONTROL
1. Define corrosion
2. Why do metals undergo corrosion?
3. What are the types of corrosion?
4. What are the consequences of corrosion?
5. What is Pilling bedworth rule?
6. What is H2 embrittlement?
7. Write the elemental reactions involved during electrochemical corrosion.
8. What type of corrosion takes place when a Zinc rod dipped in HCl solution?
9. What is galvanic corrosion? Discuss
10. What is pitting corrosion? Why is it severe?
11. Differentiate chemical and electrochemical corrosion
12. How does purity of a metal influence corrosion?
13. How do pH of the environment affect corrosion of a metal?
14. How is corrosion minimized by proper designing of equipment?
15. What is cathodic protection? Discuss
21. What is the purpose of using Mg bars in ships?
22. What is the role of hydrazine and sodium sulphite in corrosion control?
23. What are anodic inhibitors? Give any two examples with the mode of action
24. What are vapour phase inhibitors? Give an example.
25. Define a paint.
26. What is the role of drying oil in a paint? Discuss
27. What are plasticisers? Give examples.
28. What are acid pickling and alkali cleaning?
29. What is electroless plating?
30. What are the constituents of electrolytic bath used for electroless plating?
31. Bring out the reactions taking place during electroless plating
32. What are the advantages of electroless plating?
UNIT III - PHASE RULE AND ALLOYS
1. State phase rule
2. Define phase.
3. What is meant by the term component?
4. Define degree of freedom.
5. A system consists of benzene and water. What is the number of phases?
6. A gaseous mixture consists of N 2, H2 and NH3 in equilibrium. What is the number of phases?
7. How many components are present when NH4Cl is heated in a closed vessel?
8. A gaseous mixture contains NH3 , HCl in the molar ratio of 1:2. Whatr is the number of components of the system?
9. Give the number of components of the system:
(i) Fe (s) + H2O(g) à FeO(s) + H2 (g)
(ii) CaCO3(s) <=> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
10. What is invariant system?
11. Give an example for invariant system.
12. Calculate the number of phases present in the systems:
(i) MgCO3(s) <=> MgO (s) + CO2(g)
(ii) Rhombic sulphur(s) <=> Monoclinic sulphur(s)
(iii)NH 4Cl(s) <=> H3(g) + HCl(g)
(iv) I2(s) <=> I2(g)
(v) Ice(s) <=> water(l) <=> Water vapour(g)
13. What is the degree of freedom of the following systems?
(i ) NaCl (s) <=> NaCl-water(aq) <=> Water-vapour(g)
(ii) A gas in equilibrium with its solution in a liquid.
(iii) A solution of a solid in a liquid in equilibrium with solvent vapour.
(iv) Two partially misicible liquids in the absence of vapour.
(v) I2(s) <=> I2(g)
14. What is condensed phase rule? What is the number of degrees of freedom at the eutectic point for a two component system?
15. What is thermal analysis. Draw the cooling curves of a pure substance and a mixture and discuss.
16. What is the effect of pressure on the melting point of ice?
17. What is metastable equilibrium?
18. What is triple point?
19. What is eutectic composition of lead-silver system?
20. Discuss the significance of eutectics.
21. What is meant by congruent melting point?
22. How many phases and components are existing at triple point in ice – water – water vapour system.
23. State the conditions under which two substances can form a simple eutectic.
24. Define eutectic point.
25. Eutectic is a mixture and not a compound explain.
26. What is eutectic alloy?
27. Mention some important properties of alloys.
28. What are Stainless steels?
29. What are solders?
30. What is meant by phase diagram? With the help of phase diagrams explain the following terms. (i) meta state equilibrium (ii) Eutectic point.
31. Explain the differences among melting point, eutectic point and triple point. Give examples.
32. PCl5 (s) à PCl3 (l) + Cl2 (g) . Write the number of phases, components and degree of freedom for this system.
33. Mention the merits and demerits of phase rule.
34. What are the main purpose of alloying steel.
35. Give the composition of Nichrome and Alnico.
36. What is 18/8 Stainless Steel.
37. What is the basic differences between brass and bronze?
38. What are solders? Give examples.
UNIT IV : FUELS AND COMBUSTION
1. What is coal? How is it formed?
2. Name the different varieties of coal.
3. What is calorific value? Mention its units.
4. Define GCV and LCV of a fuel.
5. What is meant by the term fixed carbon?
6. How is coke superior to coal?
7. Distinguish between proximate and ultimate analysis of coal.
8. Give the characteristics of metallurgical coke.
9. What is meant by hydrogenation of coal?
10. Define octane number.
11. How will you improve the octane number?
12. What is leaded petrol? Mention its advantages and disadvantages.
13. Define cetane number.
14. How is cetane number improved?
15. Distinguish between petrol and diesel.
16. What is aviation gasoline? How is it obtained?
17. Give the composition of water gas.
18. Write the composition of producer gas.
19. Explain how water gas is superior to producer gas.
20. What is flue gas?
21. Mention the uses of flue gas analysis.
22. Name the reagents used for absorbing CO2,CO and O2 during flue gas analysis by Orsat apparatus.
UNIT – V - ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
- Explain emission spectra.
- What is an absorption spectrum?
- What are the differences between molecular spectra and atomic spectra?
- State Beer-Lamberts law. Write its mathematical form.
- What are the limitations of Beer-Lamberts law?
- What are the sources of UV light in UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
- What is a colorimeter?
- Mention the important components of a colorimeter.
- What are applications of colorimetry?
- Mention the advantages of colorimetry.
- What is flame photometry? Name few metals which can be easily detected by this method.
- What are the important processes that occur in the flame emission spectroscopy?
- What are chromophores? What are auxochromes? Give some examples.
- Define bathochromic shift and hypsochromic shift.
- What is hypochromic effect and hyperchromic effect?
- How are IR spectral range subdivided?
- How will you calculate the number of vibrational modes of a compound?
- What is finger print region? Mention its importance.
- What is group frequency region? Mention its importance.
- Give any two applications of UV spectroscopy.
UNIT – I ELECTROCHEMISTRY
1. Define EMF. How is it determined?
2. Differentiate the following ; a) Reversible and irreversible cells
b) Electrolytic and electrochemical cells
3. Derive Nernst equation? What are the applications?
4. With a neat sketch explain the principle, working of SHE.
5. Explain the concept of secondary reference electrode, taking calomel electrode as example.
6. Justify the ‘V’ shaped graph obtained from conductometric acid base titrations.
7. Bring out the significance of potentiometer titration in redox reactions.
8. What is the procedure for determining the endpoint for a precipitation reaction using potentiometric titrations?
9. What is EMF series? What are the applications?
10. How will you measure pH of a solution using ion selective glass electrodes?
UNIT II - CORROSION AND ITS INHIBITION
1. What are the constituents of paints? Discuss the functions with examples.
2. Explain the preparation of metals for coating
3. Discuss electroless plating in detail taking Ni as example.
4. Explain the mechanism of chemical corrosion
5. Explain the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion
6. Discuss the factors influencing corrosion
7. Explain the corrosion control by proper selection of metal and designing.
8. Explain cathodic protection in detail
9. What is differential aeration corrosion? Explain with four examples.
10. Write briefly about gold electroplating?
11. Compare different types of corrosion inhibitors.
UNIT III - PHASE RULE AND ALLOYS
1. Draw a neat phase diagram and explain the lead-silver system? Briefly write
about Pattinson’s process.
- Explain the application phase rule to a one component system.
- How will you construct a phase diagram by thermal analysis?
- Define phase rule and condensed phase rule. Explain the terms involved.
- Write note on heat treatment of steel.
- What are the non ferrous alloys? Give their properties.
- Define the term “Alloy” and bring out the effect of alloying of metals with examples. Explain about stainless steel.
UNIT IV : FUELS AND COMBUSTION
1. Describe proximate analysis. What is the significance of it?
2. Bring out the importance of ultimate analysis.
3. In what ways Otto Hoffmann method is advantageous than the traditional method. Explain the various products and the recovery process.
4. Explain synthesis of petrol by Bergius process.
5. What is Fishcer Tropsch process. What are the advantages of the process?
6. What is Knocking? Explain about the mechanism of anti - knocking ?
7. What is Water gas? How is it manufactured?
8. How is producer gas manufactured? Give its composition and uses.
9. Write a brief note on CNG and LPG.
10. Discuss the points to be taken care in calculation of minimum air requirement for the complete combustion.
11. How is flue gas analysed using Orsat’s apparatus?
UNIT V - ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
1. Derive Beer – Lamber’s law. What are the reasons for the deviations from Beer’s law?
2. Explain photoelectric colorimeter with suitable diagram.
3. Draw the schematic diagram of a flame photometer and explain its working.
4. Explain the working of atomic absorption spectrometer..How will you determine nickel using AAS?
5. Give an account on principle, application and intstrumentation of UV-Visible spectroscopy.
6. Give an account on principle, application and intstrumentation of IR spectroscopy Explain stretching and bending vibrations.