185253 Computer Practice Laboratory –II Lab manual- Shell and C programs in c


VEL TECH

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Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Anna University
No 42, Alamathi Road, Near Avadi Chennai – 600 062





185253 COMPUTER PRACTICE LAB-II







                                                                   Prepared by
                                                                   V.NEHRU – VTS028
M.RAJA MOHAMMED – VTS029



TABLE OF CONTENTS


S.NO.

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

PAGE NO.


1

STUDY OF UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM

4

2

VI   EDITOR

6

3

BASIC UNIXCOMMANDS


8

4

SHELL PROGRAM
ARITHMETIC OPERATION USING SHELL PROGRAM


23

5

GREATEST OF THREE NUMBERS

24

6

CHECKING WHETHER THE GIVEN NUMBER IS ARMSTRONG OR NOT


25

7

FIBONACCI SERIES


27

8

8.a. SWAPPING OF VALUES (Using 3rd Variable)
8.b. SWAPPING OF VALUES (Without using 3rd Variable)


29

9

NUMBER OF DIGITS IN AN INTEGER

31

10

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS USING SHELL PROGRAMMING
(Using SWITCH - CASE)



32

11

FACTORIAL OF A NUMBER


34

12

CHECKING FOR PRIME NUMBER


35

S.NO.

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

PAGE NO.


13

SUMS OF DIGITS OF AN INTEGER


37


14


C PROGRAMMING UNDER UNIX ENVIRONMENT

MATRIX ADDITION




38

15

SORTING OF INTEGERS


41

16

EMPLOYEE DETAILS USING STRUCTURES


43

17

FILE MANIPULATION


46

18

GREAEST AND SMALLEST NUMBER IN AN ARRAY


50

19

TO CHECK WHETHER THE NUMBER IS A PALINDROME OR NOT


52

20

SYSTEM CALL FOR A READ – ONLY FILE


54

21

SYSTEM CALL FOR WRITE-ONLY FILE


56

22

IMPLEMENTATION OF COPY COMMAND


58

23

IMPLEMENTATION OF WC COMMAND

60

24

FORK SYSTEM CALL


62

25

EXECL SYSTEM CALL


64
STUDY OF UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM
Ex.No: 01

AIM:
          To understand the basic definitions and features of Unix operating system.
          Unix stands for unplaced information computing system.

VERSION OF UNIX:  
          T&T Bell laboratories: The operating system originated at the Bell laboratories.

VERSION:
          The first commercially licensed version.

PWB/UNIX:
          Programmers were bench this version includes specialized utilities to managing software development/

UNIX SYSTEM III:
          The version includes as updated set of all the facilities of the passed two versions.  It was the first Unix versions to be transported to a micro computer.

UNIX SYSTEM I:
          It includes performance importance and enhanced process to process communication mostly one system III.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA:
Ø  BSD - 4.1  Software development
Ø  BSD - 4.2
Ø  BSD - 4.3

(i)                 MULTIUSER:
          Unix is a multi-user OS which permits more than one user to utilize the computer simultaneously any one of the connected terminals.

(ii)               MULTI-TASKING:
          The term task refers to a place initiated by the user to a process initiated by user Unix offer concept of classifying the task.

1.      FOREGROUND TASK:
     It is the one where the user has to wait for the completion to present task before initiating the next task.

2.      BACKGROUND TASK:

     It is the one whose the user can continue interaction with the system while one or more of the presently issued task if is still executing.

3.      PORTABLE:
     The application programs written for one system works on another system.

4.      MODULATOR:
     It means the various part of the Unix system can be adder on the reproved without editing performance of other component.

5. FILE STRUCTURE:
     Unix has hierarchical file structure and imported free structure.

6. SECURITY:
     Unix being a multi using operating system offers protection to user information from another.  It maintains a list of users who are all allowed to access the system.  The system also keep takes of that file and resources each user is authorized to renew user’s name to be added to the list before they have an access to the system.

TYPES OF USERS:
     User is the owner of the file
            The owner of the file is the one who has created the file or the one to the ownership has been transferred by the creates of the file.

GROUPS:
            The members of the group have the same group I.D. but different user I.D.

OTHERS:
            The other member who is neither the user nor the member of the group. Unix is a communication operating system.  It is three level operating system.
            Communication between terminals connected to the computer.
            Communication between two compare of some place which cannot use the same either same hardware as software through local area network.
            Communication between two computers at the remote location.

1. SHELL:
            The shell is the Unix system command’s inter plater.  The two important shells are         
                        Bourse shell
                        C shell

2. KERNEL:
            Kernel has the direct interaction with the hardware.  It controls functions like file management-1, system, security of file, process management, scheduling management.


RESULT:
            Thus the Unix environment has been studied.    
VI   EDITOR
Ex.No: 02

AIM:

                  To understand the basic functions and features of the VI editor

INSTRUCTIONS:

    VI EDITOR- Visual editor
    VI stands for Visual

                  The VI editor is the text editor. Originally developed for Unix  programmers.
It is a model meaning. It is operating in the three different modes. The VI editor has been
Around for decade and is used daily by thousands of Linux and Unix users.
             
 THREE ASPECTS OF VI:

                      VI is supplied with all Unix serpents VI can be used at other universities
or any business with UNIX system.
                      VI is a amount of memory allows efficient operation when the network is busy.
                      VI uses standard alphabetic keys for commands.

DIFFERENT MODES IN  VI EDITOR
               
                      They are three different modes are available.
                                                   
                                                     1. Command mode
                                                     2. Insert task
                                                     3. Last line or escape mode

1. COMMAND MODE
                 
                      When the first start editing a file with the VI editor we will be VI connected
 mode….  In this mode we can issue many VI commands, including insert, append delete, other search and navigation commands the let you move around your file.

2.INSERT MODE

                    Once we issue a VI editor insert append or open command we will be in VI insert mode. If we are working with a mode VI is typically configure to show the current mode of operation.
                         At this point, we can
 
                                                    A. Type text into our file
                                                    B. Uses of the arrow keys
             
  we can easily move back to command mode by esc.
           
           Cpy- Copying the current line.
            Q   - Heading
             I    - Insert the word.


3.LAST LINE MODE OR ESCAPE MODE:

Ø  The last VI mode is known as VI last line mode we can only get to last line mode from command mode we get into this mode by pressing the colon key.
Ø  After pressing the key, we will see a colon character appears at the beginning of the last line of our VI editor window and cursor will be moved to the position.

: w -to save our file but not quit VI.

: q -to quit if you haven’t left mode any edit.

:wq -to quit and save edits.















RESULT:
     Thus the basic things about the editor and the 8 modes in VI editor had been studied.






BASIC UNIXCOMMANDS

Ex.No: 03

AIM:
            To execute and implement the basic Shell UNIX commands.

1. DIRECTORY HANDLING COMMANDS AND THEIR OUTPUT:

1.      [root@localhost root]# mkdir ram è Creates a directory named “ram”
2.      [root@localhost root]# cd arun è Enters into the directory “arun”
Example:
[ece@localhost ece]$ cd arun
[ece@localhost arun]$
3.      [root@localhost arun]# cd .. è Comes out of the directory “arun”
[root@localhost root]
Example:
[ece@localhost ece]$ cd arun
[ece@localhost arun]$ cd ..
[ece@localhost ece]$
4. [root@localhost root]# pwd è Shows the present working directory
Example:
[ece@localhost ece]$ pwd
        /home/ece
  5.[root@localhost root]#  rmdirèUsed to remove a directory
   6.[root@localhost root]# ls è Shows the list of files & directories
                    EXAMPLE:
[ece@localhost ece]$ ls
kanth
kar
kart
karth
karthick
karthik
karti
kat
katheeja
kathi
7.[root@localhost root]# ls -l è List the permission of files / Directories
            total 4
           -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         1093 Mar 11  2006 anaconda-ks.cfg
           -rw-r--r--    1 root     root          223 Mar  9 18:04 arith.sh
           -rw-r--r--    1 root     root          260 Mar  9 18:18 arm.sh
           drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Mar  9 19:24 barnabas
          

2. FILE HANDLING COMMANDS.

1)   [root@localhost root]# cat > msb è Creates a New file “msb”
I studying B.E ECE.

2)   [root@localhost root]# cat msb è Opens the created file “msb"
I studying B.E ECE.

3)   [root@localhost root]# cat >> msb è Appends the details in the file “msb”
I'm studying in Veltech Engineering college

4)      [root@localhost root]# cat msb
My Name is Barnabas
I'm studying in Veltech Engineering college

5)      [ece@localhost ece]$ cp ece1 ece2èTo create duplicate copies
           [ece@localhost ece]$ cat ece1
a
b
c
       d
 [ece@localhost ece]$ cat  ece2
a
b
c
       d

     6)  [ece@localhost ece]$ ln ece7 ece8èTo link two files
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat ece8
Iam studying in vel tech college
i am in ece dept

7) [root@localhost root]# rm msb è Removes the file “msb”
   rm: remove regular file `msb'? y

8)(i) [root@localhost root]# wc msb è Shows the no. of lines, words & characters.
2      10      65 msb

  (ii)[root@localhost root]# wc -l msb è Shows the no. of lines alone.
2 msb

  (iii)[root@localhost root]# wc -w msb è Shows the no. of words alone.
10 msb

   (iv)[root@localhost root]# wc -c msb è Shows the no. of characters alone.
65 msb
9) [ece@localhost ece]$ mv ece9 ece0 ls èto move ordinary and directory files
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat ece0
Iam studying in vel tech college
i am in ece dept
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat ece9
cat: ece9: No such file or directory

10)  [ece@localhost ece]$ find ece8èTo find a file
ece8

3. PATTERN SEARCHING COMMANDS.

1)      [root@localhost root]# grep m msb è Prints the sentence with the letter ‘m’
My Name is sudha
I'm studying in vel  tech engineering college
2)      [ece@localhost ece]$ egrep "are|our" yamuna1 àto search for the multiple pattern
       we belong to our vel tech tech college
       we are of ece students
3)      [ece@localhost ece]$ fgrep "stands for" yamuna1 àto extract only the fixed string without the use of any regular expression.
ece stands for electronic and conmmunication engineering

4. GENERAL PURPOSE COMMANDS.
 I ) SIMPLE COMMANDS.

      1. [root@localhost root]# cal è Prints the calendar if the present month
                  March 2006
             Su  Mo  Tu  We  Th   Fr  Sa
                                     1    2    3    4
               5     6     7      8    9  10  11
             12   13   14   15   16  17  18
             19   20   21   22   23  24  25
             26   27   28   29   30  31

            2. [root@localhost root]# date è Prints the current time.
            Thu Mar  9 19:26:27 IST 2006
                         
             3. [root@localhost root]# time –l è Prints the System Run-time
            real    0m0.005s
            user   0m0.000s
            sys     0m0.000s

            4. [root@localhost root]# man cal è Opens manual on “cal”
[ece@localhost ece]$ man cp
CP(1)                                 FSF                                CP(1)
NAME
       cp - copy files and directories

SYNOPSIS
       cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST
       cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
       cp [OPTION]... --target-directory=DIRECTORY SOURCE...

DESCRIPTION
       Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       -a, --archive
              same as -dpR

       --backup[=CONTROL]
              make a backup of each existing destination file

       -b     like --backup but does not accept an argument
:
            5. [root@localhost root]# bc è Open the Binary Calculator
bc 1.06
Copyright 1991-1994, 1997, 1998, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
            For details type `warranty'.
            123 + 246
            369
            10 * 20
            200

ii) STATUS INFORMATION COMMANDS

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ who –b è Displays the date & time the system was 
                                                                  brought up.
system boot  Feb 23 23:02

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ who –s è Displays the short form listing which           consists of the username,terminal number and time fields.
ece      pts/2        Feb 23 23:03 (10.0.0.5)
ece      pts/1        Feb 23 23:03 (10.0.0.10)
ece      pts/4        Feb 23 23:03 (10.0.0.36)
ece      pts/6        Feb 23 23:04 (10.0.0.135)
ece      pts/0        Feb 23 23:04 (10.0.0.119)
ece      pts/3        Feb 23 23:04 (10.0.0.49)
ece      pts/5        Feb 23 23:05 (10.0.0.137)


  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ who –u è Restricts listing to users currently logged in.
ece      pts/2        Feb 23 23:03 00:02        1723 (10.0.0.5)
ece      pts/1        Feb 23 23:03 00:02        1674 (10.0.0.10)
ece      pts/4        Feb 23 23:03   .          1993 (10.0.0.36)
ece      pts/6        Feb 23 23:04 00:01        1998 (10.0.0.135)
ece      pts/0        Feb 23 23:04   .          2101 (10.0.0.119)
ece      pts/3        Feb 23 23:04   .          2149 (10.0.0.49)
ece      pts/5        Feb 23 23:05   .          2223 (10.0.0.137)

  1. [root@localhost root]# who am I è Identifies the current working System
root     pts/0        Mar  9 19:21 (:0.0)

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ ps –a  è Display the status of all the process associated with –u,g options
PID TTY          TIME CMD
2311 pts/7    00:00:00 mail
2312 pts/3    00:00:00 ps
  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ ps –g  è Display Inforamtion of all process of group loads specified in ggrplist
PID TTY      STAT   TIME COMMAND
2152 pts/3      S              0:00 -bash
2344 pts/3      R             0:00 ps –g

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ ps –l èLists the information using long format.
F S UID   PID  PPID  C PRI  NI ADDR    SZWCHAN  TTY     TIME CMD
4 S   502  2152  2149  0  75   0    -   1066        wait4           pts/3    00:00:00   bash
0 R   502  2348  2152  0  80   0    -   764           -                 pts/3    00:00:00   ps

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ tty èIt will retun the pathname with your terminal
/dev/pts/3

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ id èTo Display the Numerical value that corresponda to your login name.
uid=502(ece) gid=502(ece) groups=502(ece)

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ uname –a è To display the relevant details about the Operating System on the standard output.
Linux localhost.localdomain 2.4.20-6smp #1 SMP Thu Feb 27 09:59:40 EST 2003 i686  i686 i386 GNU/Linux

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ finger ece èGives you more Information about the User.
Login: ece                              Name: (null)
Directory: /home/ece                    Shell: /bin/bash
On since Tue Feb 23 23:03 (IST) on pts/2 from 10.0.0.5
5 minutes 38 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:03 (IST) on pts/1 from 10.0.0.10
5 minutes 38 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:03 (IST) on pts/4 from 10.0.0.36
7 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:04 (IST) on pts/6 from 10.0.0.135
4 minutes 54 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:04 (IST) on pts/0 from 10.0.0.119
3 minutes 32 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:04 (IST) on pts/3 from 10.0.0.49
On since Tue Feb 23 23:05 (IST) on pts/5 from 10.0.0.137
4 minutes 2 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:06 (IST) on pts/7 from 10.0.0.119
7 seconds idle
On since Tue Feb 23 23:07 (IST) on pts/8 from 10.0.0.34
2 minutes 12 seconds idle
New mail received Tue Feb 23 23:08 2010 (IST)
Unread since Tue Feb 23 22:44 2010 (IST)
No Plan.                                                                                       

iii ) COMMUNICATION COMMANDS
 
  1. [root@localhost root]#  wall Hai è To send message “hai” to all users there who are currently logged in.
                                  Hai
  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ mail ece è To send the textual messages electrically            transferred from one user to another.
Subject: Hai.
How are you.
All the best for your exams.
Have a nice day.
  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ mail è Read your mail
Mail version 8.1 6/6/93.  Type ? for help.
"/var/spool/mail/ece": 1 messages 1 new
a) >N  1 ece@localhost.locald  Tue Feb 23 23:06  18/720   "Hai."
&
Message 1:
From ece@localhost.localdomain  Tue Feb 23 23:06:23 2010
Date: Tue, 23 Feb 2010 23:06:22 +0530
From: ece@localhost.localdomain
To: ece@localhost.localdomain
Subject: Hai.
How are you.Have you prepared for your exams.
ALL THE BEST FOR YOUR EXAMS.
Have a nice day.

b) & reply è To send the reply to the specified user
To: ece@localhost.localdomain ece@localhost.localdomain
Subject: Re: Hai.
Thanks
Cc: & cse
Unknown command: "cse"
c)& exit è Exit from the mail
d)&typeè Print the mail message
e)&deleteè Delete from the mail box

OTHER SHELL COMMANDS

I ) INPUT AND OUTPUT REDIRECTION COMMANDS

  1. [root@localhost root]# > è To redirect the output of a cammmand to a file.
[ece@localhost ece]$ date>a1
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat a1
Tue Feb 23 22:59:03 IST ece@localhost ece]$

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$ >> è To append the output at the end of a file
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat science
date
time
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat tech
one
two
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat science>>tech
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat tech
one
two
date
time
[ece@localhost ece]$

  1. [ece@localhost ece]$< èTo redirect the output of a command to a file.
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat
CSE
EEE
[ece@localhost ece]$

     4. [ece@localhost ece]$ < >èTo redirect the output and input command to a file
[ece@localhost ece]$ catdnames
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat dnames    
CSE
EEE
[ece@localhost ece]$

II ) SECURITY COMMANDS
 
1.[ece@localhost ram]$ ls –l     èTo list files & Directories in long format
total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science

        2. ece@localhost ram]$ chmod -ux science   è (-) denotes removing the permission
                                                                               (u)denotes the user acess
                                                                               (x) denotes executing permissions
[ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
            total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
----------        1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 scienceè shows     
                                       Missing Permissions

3)[ece@localhost ram]$ chmod u+r,u+w science è(+) denotes assigning
                                                                                                Permissions
                                                                                (w) denotes writing permissions
                                                                                 (r)denotes reading permissions
    [ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
              total 3
  -rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
  -rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
  -rw-------       1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science  èthe user now has reading writing permission

4) [ece@localhost ram]$ chmod u=x science       è(=)denotes assigning absolutely
     [ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
             total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
----------         1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science

 5) [ece@localhost ram]$ chmod g+r,g+w science è(g)denotes group accessibility
     [ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
----rw----       1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science èthe group   
                                                      has now permission to access

6) [ece@localhost ram]$ chmod o+r,o+w science è(o)denotes other user
                                                                                         accessibility
     [ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
----rw-rw-    1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science

7) [ece@localhost ram]$ chmod a+r,a+x science è(a)denotes all user accessibility
     [ece@localhost ram]$ ls -l
total 3
-rw-rw-r--    1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:47 lop
-rwx------      1 ece      ece            30 Feb  9 23:43 pal
-r-xrwxrwx  1 ece      ece            65 Feb 23 23:16 science

III) WILD CARD PATTERNS

1. [ece@localhost ansatz]$  ls m* èTo representing any number of characters used in the prefix or suffix.
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls
kanna  mvj  mvs  student  vikram  vikram]
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls m*
mvj:
mvs:
[ece@localhost raja]$
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls
kanna  mvj  mvs  student  vikram  vikram]

2. [ece@localhost raja]$ ls mv? èTo represent one character only either in the prefix or in the suffix of the file name
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls
kanna  mvj  mvs  student  vikram  vikram]
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls mv?
mvj:
mvs:
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls

3. [ece@localhost raja]$ ls sh[1-4] èTo access a subset of related files
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls
kanna  mvj  mvs  sh1  sh2  sh3  sh4  sh5  student  vikram  vikram]
[ece@localhost raja]$ ls sh[1-4]
sh1:
sh2:
sh3:
sh4:
[ece@localhost raja]$

IV ) PIPES AND FILTERS COMMANDS

1. [ece@localhost ece]$ who |wc è The output of “who”is taken as the input for the
                                                             “wc” and result is displayed.
            9      54     426

2. [ece@localhost ece]$ who | tee names | wc –l èThe Use of tee command is to
                                                                store the intermediate results in a file.
16
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat names
ece      pts/4        Feb 23 23:56 (10.0.0.135)
ece      pts/17       Feb 24 00:05 (10.0.0.221)
ece      pts/10       Feb 24 00:09 (10.0.0.15)
ece      pts/13       Feb 24 00:13 (10.0.0.180)
ece      pts/1        Feb 24 00:14 (10.0.0.49)
ece      pts/24       Feb 24 00:14 (10.0.0.6)
ece      pts/3        Feb 24 00:17 (10.0.0.36)
ece      pts/30       Feb 24 00:19 (10.0.0.137)
ece      pts/7        Feb 24 00:19 (10.0.0.34)
ece      pts/28       Feb 24 00:22 (10.0.0.5)
ece      pts/20       Feb 24 00:23 (10.0.0.120)
ece      pts/21       Feb 24 00:24 (10.0.0.3)
ece      pts/31       Feb 24 00:25 (10.0.0.119)
ece      pts/34       Feb 24 00:25 (10.0.0.14)
ece      pts/32       Feb 24 00:27 (10.0.0.4)

3. [ece@localhost ece]$ head -5 names  èTo Display the First Five lines from a
                                                                        File.
jack
arun
prashant
deepak
naga
[ece@localhost ece]$

4. [ece@localhost ece]$ tail -5 names è To Display the Last Five lines from a
                                                                        File.
ajith
superman
spiderman
goten
vegetables

5. (i)[root@localhost root]# sort msb1 è Sorts in ascending order
 Aravind
 Balaji
 Dinesh
 Ganesh
 Kamalesh
  (ii) [root@localhost root]# sort -r msb1 è Sorts in descending order
          Kamalesh
          Ganesh
          Dinesh
          Balaji
          Aravind

6.[root@localhost root]# pr è To display the Page number,File Creation date and
                                                     along with the name of the file.

[ece@localhost ece]$ pr g1
2010-02-25 02:38                        g1                        Page 1
echo ENTER THE NAME
read n
echo-n THE ENTERED NAME IS $n

7.[root@localhost root]# cut è To cut the selected fields.
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college
diva  vh2346
jan   vh2345
kavi  vh2387
naru  vh2876
subi  vh2498
[ece@localhost ece]$ cut -c2 college
i
a
a
a
u
[ece@localhost ece]$

8.[root@localhost root]# paste è To paste the contenet from one to another file.
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college1
dhoni  vh2376
raina  vh2398
raj    vh2270
subi   vh2498
jan    vh2345
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college2
divi   vh2334
raina  vh2398
raj    vh2270
[ece@localhost ece]$ paste -d% college1 college2
dhoni  vh2378
divi   vh2334
raina  vh2397
raina  vh2398
raj    vh2270 
raj    vh2270 
subi   vh2498%
jan    vh2345
                                     
9.[root@localhost root]# join è To extract the common lines from two sorted Files. 
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college1
dhoni  vh2376
raina  vh2398
raj    vh2270
subi   vh2498
jan    vh2345
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college2
divi   vh2334
raina  vh2398
raj    vh2270
[ece@localhost ece]$ join –v1 college1 college2
dhoni  vh2376
subi   vh2498
jan    vh2345
[ece@localhost ece]$

10.[root@localhost root]# uniq è To Displays the adjacent duplicate lines in a existing file
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat tech3
nithu   vh2272
uma     vh2297
nithu   vh2272[ece@localhost ece]$
[ece@localhost ece]$ uniq -c2 tech3
      3 nithu   vh2272
[ece@localhost ece]$

11.[root@localhost root]# nl è Used to add Line Numbers to a File.
    [cse@localhost cse]$ nl dept
     1  cse
     2  ece
     3  eee
     4  it
     5  mech
    [cse@localhost cse]$ nl -v4 deptèstarts the numbering of each page 
                                                                                          by 4
     4  cse
     5  ece
     6  eee
     7  it
     8  mech
[cse@localhost cse]$ nl –i3 deptèincrements number of lines by 3.
     1  cse
     4  ece
     7  eee
    10   it
                             13  mech
12.[root@localhost root]# tr è It is used to translate characters taken from the standard input.
[cse@localhost cse]$ cat dept
cse
ece
eee
it
mech
[cse@localhost cse]$ cat dept|tr "[a-z]" "[A-Z]"
CSE
ECE
EEE
IT
MECH
13.[root@localhost root]# pg è It displays the output of a command on the screen
                                                        page by page.

14.[root@localhost root]# more è To Displays the output page by page
 [ece@localhost ece]$ ls | more
0
00
000123
003
0045
007
1
10
100
10001
101
12
122
123
1234
1234567890
124
132
133
143
159
18
--More—    è Press Enter to see the next page.

15.[root@localhost root]# cmp è Compare any two files, including binary files. It
                                                           takes two filenames as arguments.
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat > college
diva vh2346
jan  vh2345
kavi vh2387
naru vh2876
subi vh2498
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat > college1
DHONI VH2876
RAINA VH2398
KAIF  VH2657
HARI  VH2765
SRI   VH4567
[ece@localhost ece]$ cmp college college1
college college1 differ: byte 1, line 1
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college[ece@localhost ece]$ cmp -b college college1
college college1 differ: byte 1, line 1 is 144 d 104 D

16.[root@localhost root]# diff è Files are compared on line by line basis.
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college
diva  vh2346
jan   vh2345
kavi  vh2387
naru  vh2876
subi  vh2498
[ece@localhost ece]$ cat college1
dhoni  vh2387
raina  vh2389
subi   vh2498
sachin vh2564
diva   vh2346
[ece@localhost ece]$ diff -e college college1
1,5c
dhoni  vh2387
raina  vh2389
subi   vh2498
sachin vh2564
diva   vh2346
[ece@localhost ece]$ diff -b college college1
1,4c1,2
< diva  vh2346
< jan   vh2345
< kavi  vh2387
< naru  vh2876
---
> dhoni  vh2387
> raina  vh2389
5a4,5
> sachin vh2564
> diva   vh2346

17.[root@localhost root]# comm è Compare and displays lines common as well as
                                                              unique to two files.
[ece@localhost ece]$ comm -1 college college1
dhoni  vh2387
raina  vh2389
subi   vh2498
sachin vh2564
diva   vh2346
[ece@localhost ece]$ comm -13 college college1
dhoni  vh2387
raina  vh2389
subi   vh2498
sachin vh2564
diva   vh2346
[ece@localhost ece]$ comm -23 college college1
diva  vh2346
jan   vh2345
kavi  vh2387
naru  vh2876
subi  vh2498




RESULT:
            Thus the Basic Shell Commands were executed.                                                                                                                                                               



ARITHMETIC OPERATION USING SHELL PROGRAM
Ex.No: 04

AIM:
            To write a shell Program to do the Arithmetic Operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start
Step 2: Read the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’
Step 3: Write the expression to calculate sum, difference, Product, Quotient and Remainder.
Step 4: Print the Results
Step 5: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter Two Numbers"
read a b
c=`expr $a + $b`
d=`expr $a - $b`
e=`expr $a \* $b`
f=`expr $a / $b`
g=`expr $a % $b`
echo "Sum = $c"
echo "Difference = $d"
echo "Product = $e"
echo "Quotient = $f"
echo "Remainder = $g"

SAMPLE OUTPUT:
Enter Two Numbers
12 10
Sum = 22
Difference = 2
Product = 120
Quotient = 1
Remainder = 2

RESULT:
            Thus the shell Program to do arithmetic operation was executed without any errors.
GREATEST OF THREE NUMBERS

Ex. No.: 05

AIM:
            To write a shell program to find the greatest of three Numbers.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the value of ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’

Step 3: Check if ‘a’ is greater than ‘b’ and ‘a’ is greater than ‘c’

Step 4: Then print “A is Greater”

Step 5: If Step 3 is not satisfied check if ‘b’ is greater than ‘c’

Step 6: Then print “B is Greater”

Step 7: Else Print “C is greater”

Step 8: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM:
echo "Enter Three Numbers"
read a b c
if [ $a -gt $b -a $a -gt $c ]
then
echo "$a is Greater"
elif [ $b -gt $c ]
then
echo "$b is Greater"
else
echo "$c is Greater"
fi

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter Three Numbers
12 14 16
16 is Greater

RESULT:
            Thus the program to find the greatest of three Numbers was executed and the output was verfied.

CHECKING WHETHER THE GIVEN NUMBER IS ARMSTRONG OR NOT

Ex. No.: 06

AIM:
            To check whether the given Number is Armstrong Number or not using Shell Programming.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the value of ‘num’

Step 3: Store the value of ‘num’ in ‘x’ and initialize the value of sum = 0.

Step 4: When the value of ‘num’ is greater then 0, solve the following expressions

Step 5: y = num/10; z=y*y*y; sum=num+z; num=num/10

Step 6: Close the While Loop

Step 7: Check if ‘x’ is equal to ‘sum’

Step 8: Print the Result

Step 9: Stop.



















SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter a Number"
read num
x=$num
sum=0
while [ $num -gt 0 ]
do
y=`expr $num % 10`
z=`expr $y \* $y \* $y`
sum=`expr $sum + $z`
num=`expr $num / 10`
done
if [ $x -eq $sum ]
then
echo "$x is an armstrong Number"
else
echo "$x is not an armstrong Number"
fi




SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter a Number
153
153 is an armstrong Number
[root@localhost root]# sh arm.sh
Enter a Number
123
123 is not an armstrong Number










RESULT:
            Thus the Shell Program to check whether the given Number is Armstrong or not was executed and the output was verified.

FIBONACCI SERIES
Ex No.: 07

AIM:
To write a Shell Program to print the Fibonacci series.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the Value of ‘n’

Step 3: Initialize i=2; a=0; b=1.

Step 4: Print the Value of ‘a’ and ‘b’

Step 5: When ‘i’ is lesser than ‘n’, solve the expression c=a+b

Step 6: Print c

Step 7: Swap the Values of ‘b’ to ‘a’ and ‘c’ to ‘b’

Step 8:  Solve the expression “i=i+1”

Step 9: Stop.





















SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter the Limit"
read n
i=2
echo "Fibonacci Series"
echo "----------------"
a=0
b=1
echo $a
echo $b
while [ $i -lt $n ]
do
c=`expr $a + $b`
echo $c
a=$b
b=$c
i=`expr $i + 1`
done



SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter the Limit
8
Fibonacci Series
----------------
0
1
1
2
3
5
8
13






RESULT:
           
Thus the Shell Program to print the Fibonacci Series was executed and the output was verified.

SWAPPING OF VALUES
(Using 3rd Variable)

Ex. No.: 08(a)

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to swap two values using 3rd variable.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Read the Values of ‘a’ and ‘b’

Step 2: Swap the values of ‘a’ to the third variable ‘temp’    

Step 3: Swap the value of ‘b’ to ‘a’ and ‘b’ to ‘temp’

Step 4: Print the swapped values of ‘a’ and ‘b’

Step 5: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter Two Numbers"
read a b
temp=$a
a=$b
b=$temp
echo $a $b

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter Two Numbers
12 10
10 12


RESULT:
            Thus the program to swap two values using 3rd variable was executed and the output was verified.







SWAPPING OF VALUES
(Without using 3rd Variable)

Ex. No.: 08(b)

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to swap two values without using 3rd Variable.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’

Step 3: Solve the expression, a=a + b; b=a – b; a=a – b

Step 4: Print the swapped values of ‘a’ and ‘b’

Step 5: Stop


SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter Two Numbers"
read a b
a=`expr $a + $b`
b=`expr $a - $b`
a=`expr $a - $b`
echo $a $b



SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter Two Numbers
12 10
10 12




RESULT:

            Thus the Shell Program to swap two values without using third variable was executed and the output was verified.
NUMBER OF DIGITS IN AN INTEGER

Ex. No.: 09

AIM:
            To count the number of digits in an integer, using Shell Programming.
ALGORITHM:
Step 1: Start
Step 2: Read the value of ‘a’
Step 3: Initialize the value of c as 0
Step 4: When the value of ‘a’ is not equal to 0, solve n=a %10.
Step 5: If the value of ‘n’ is not equal to 0, solve c=c + 1(increment)
Step 6: End if condition
Step 7: Solve the expression “a=a / 10”
Step 8: Repeat steps 4 to 7 until ‘a’ is equal to 0
Step 9: Print the value of c as the number of digits in an integer.
Step 10: Stop.
SHELL PROGRAM:
echo "Enter a Number"
read a
c=0
while [ $a -ne 0 ]
do
n=`expr $a % 10`
if [ $n -ne 0 ]
then
c=`expr $c + 1`
fi
a=`expr $a / 10`
done
echo "The Number of Digits in the Integer is $c"

SAMPLE OUTPUT:
Enter a Number
123456789
The Number of Digits in the Integer is 9

RESULT:     
            Thus the Shell Program to calculate the number of digits of an integer was executed and the output was verified.
ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS USING SHELL PROGRAMMING
(Using SWITCH - CASE)

Ex. No. 10

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to perform Arithmetic Operations using Switch – Case

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the two Numbers.

Step 3: Get the operation choice from the User

Step 4: Give the expressions for each case and solve them.

Step 5: Print the Result

Step 6: Stop

























SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter Two Numbers"
read a b
echo "What do you want to do? (1 to 5)"
echo "1) Sum"
echo "2) Difference"
echo "3) Product"
echo "4) Quotient"
echo "5) Remainder"
echo "Enter your Choice"
read n
case "$n" in
1) echo "The Sum of $a and $b is `expr $a + $b`";;
2) echo "The Difference between $a and $b is `expr $a - $b`";;
3) echo "The Product of the $a and $b is `expr $a \* $b`";;
4) echo "The Quotient of $a by $b is `expr $a / $b`";;
5) echo "The Remainder of $a by $b is `expr $a % $b`";;
esac

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh arith_switch.sh
Enter Two Numbers
12 10
What do you want to do? (1 to 5)
1) Sum
2) Difference
3) Product
4) Quotient
5) Remainder
Enter your Choice
4
The Quotient of 12 by 10 is 1







RESULT:
            Thus the Shell program to perform arithmetic operations using Switch Case was executed and the output was verified.


FACTORIAL OF A NUMBER

Ex. No. 11

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to find the factorial of a Number.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start
Step 2: Read the Number as ‘n’
Step 3: Assign the value of ‘p’ as 0 and solve the expression i = n-1
Step 4: While the value of ‘i’ is greater than or equal to 1 do the following steps.
Step 5: Solve the expression n=n*1 and i=i-1 (Decrementing Operation)
Step 6: Then print the value of ‘n’ as the factorial of the given number.
Step 7: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter a Number"
read n
i=`expr $n - 1`
p=1
while [ $i -ge 1 ]
do
n=`expr $n \* $i`
i=`expr $i - 1`
done
echo "The Factorial of the given Number is $n"

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh fact.sh
Enter a Number
5
The Factorial of the given Number is 120

RESULT:
            Thus the Shell Program to find the factorial of the Number was executed and the output was verified.



CHECKING FOR PRIME NUMBER

Ex. No.: 12

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to check if the Number is a Prime Number or a Composite Number.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the Number as ‘n’

Step 3: Initialize the value of ‘t’ to 0 and solve the expression i=n-1

Step 4: While ‘i’ is greater than or equal to 2, perform the following steps.

Step 5: Solve p=n%i

Step 6: Check the condition (p=0) and then solve t=t+1

Step 7: End the If Condition

Step 8: Solve the expression i=i-1

Step 9: If ‘t’ is greater than 0, print “The Number is not a Prime Number”

Step 10: If the condition is not satisfied, print “The Number is a Prime Number”


















SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter a Number"
read n
i=`expr $n - 1`
t=0
while [ $i -ge 2 ]
do
p=`expr $n % $i`
if [ $p -eq 0 ]
then
t=`expr $t + 1`
fi
i=`expr $i - 1`
done
if [ $t -gt 0 ]
then
echo "The Number $n is not a Prime Number"
else
echo "The Number $n is a Prime Number"
fi




SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh prime.sh
Enter a Number
2
The Number 2 is a Prime Number
[root@localhost Shell]# sh prime.sh
Enter a Number
4
The Number 4 is not a Prime Number






RESULT:
           
Thus the Shell Program to check if the given number is prime or not, was executed and the output was verified.
SUMS OF DIGITS OF AN INTEGER


Ex. No. 13

AIM:
            To write a Shell Program to calculate the sum of digits of an Integer.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start
Step 2: Read the Integer as ‘num’
Step 3: Initialize the value of sum=0.
Step 4: While the value of ‘num’ is greater than 0, solve the following expressions.
Step 5: Find the remainder of ‘num’ by 10 and store in ‘y’
Step 6: Add ‘sum’ with ‘y’ and store it in ‘sum’
Step 7: Divide ‘num’ by 10 and store the value in ‘num’
Step 7: Close the while loop
Step 8: Print the Result
Step 9: Stop

SHELL PROGRAM:

echo "Enter a Number"
read num
sum=0
while [ $num -gt 0 ]
do
y=`expr $num % 10`
sum=`expr $sum + $y`
num=`expr $num / 10`
done
echo "The Sum of the Digits of the Integer is $sum"


SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh digits_sum.sh
Enter a Number
123456
The Sum of the Digits of the Integer is 21

RESULT:

            Thus the Shell program to calculate the sum of the digits of the integer was executed and the output was verified.
C PROGRAMMING UNDER UNIX ENVIRONMENT

MATRIX ADDITION

Ex. No. 14

AIM:
            To write a C Program to add two matrices under UNIX Environment

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Declare a[10][10], b[10][10], add[10][10], i, j, m, n.

Step 3: Get the number of rows and columns as m and n respectively

Step 4: Scan the values of the matrices according to the values of m and n.

Step 5: Add the two matrices directly and store the values in ‘add[10][10]’

Step 6: Using ‘for loop’ print the values of add[10][10]

Step 7: End the loop

Step 8: Stop.




















C PROGRAM:

#include
main()
{
 int add[10][10],a[10][10],b[10][10],i,j,m,n;
 printf("\nEnter the Number of Rows and Columns:\n\n ");
 scanf("%d%d",&m,&n);
 printf("Enter the 1st Matrix: \n\n");
 for(i=0;i
  for(j=0;j
   scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
 printf("Enter the 2nd Matrix: \n\n");
 for(i=0;i
  for(j=0;j
   scanf("%d",&b[i][j]);
 for(i=0;i
  {
   for(j=0;j
   add[i][j]=a[i][j]+b[i][j];
  }
 printf("The Addition of the two matrices is: \n");
 for(i=0;i
  {
   printf("\n\n");
   for(j=0;j
   {
    printf("%d\t",add[i][j]);
   }
  }
}
















SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc matadd.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

Enter the Number of Rows and Columns:

 2
2
Enter the 1st Matrix:

1
2
3
4
Enter the 2nd Matrix:

1
2
3
4
The Addition of the two matrices is:


2       4

6       8      













RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to add two matrices under UNIX Environment was executed and the output was verified.


SORTING OF INTEGERS

Ex. No. 15

AIM:
            To write a C Program to sort an array of integers under UNIX environment

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Get the number of array integers as ‘n’

Step 3: Using ‘for loop’, get the ‘n’ number of integers as a[]

Step 4: Again using ‘for loop’ check if the second number is greater than the first

Step 5: If the above step is true, swap the value of second to first

Step 6: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for all the integers scanned using ‘for loop’

Step 7: Again using ‘for loop’ print the sorted list of values.

Step 8: Stop






















C PROGRAM:

#include
main()
 {
  int x[50],n,i,j,temp;
  printf("How many Numbers ?\n");
  scanf("%d",&n);
  printf("\nEnter the List of %d numbers:\n",n);
  for(i=0;i
   scanf("%d",&x[i]);
  for(i=0;i
   for(j=i+1;j
    if(x[i]>x[j])
    {
     temp=x[i];
     x[i]=x[j];
     x[j]=temp;
    }
  printf("\nThe Sorted list of Numbers is \n");
  for(i=0;i
   printf("%d\t",x[i]);
 }


SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc sort.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
How many Numbers ?
5

Enter the List of 5 numbers:
4
8
3
6
2

The Sorted list of Numbers is
2       3       4       6       8  


RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to sort the given array of integers under UNIX environment was executed and the output was verified.
EMPLOYEE DETAILS USING STRUCTURES

Ex. No.: 16


AIM:
            To write a C Program to get and print the employee details using Structures under UNIX Platform.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Initialize the structure with employee no., name and salary.

Step 3: Inside the main function, get the number of employees

Step 4: Using for loop, scan the employee details

Step 5: Again using for loop, print the employee details

Step 6: Stop
























C PROGRAM:

#include
struct emp
 {
  char name[25];
  int salary;
  int empno;
 }a[20];
main()
 {
  int n,i;
  printf("\n Enter the Number of Employees: ");
  scanf("%d",&n);
  for(i=0;i
 {
  printf("\n\nEnter the %d Employee details",i+1);
  printf("\n\n1.Employee No.: ");
  scanf("%d",&a[i].empno);
  printf("\n2.Name: ");
  scanf("%s",&a[i].name);
  printf("\n3.Salary: ");
  scanf("%d",&a[i].salary);
 }
 for(i=0;i
 {
  printf("\n\nEmployee %d",i+1);
  printf("\n1.Employee No.: %d",a[i].empno);
  printf("\n2.Employee Name: %s",a[i].name);
  printf("\n3.Salary: %d",a[i].salary);
 }
}














SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc employ.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

 Enter the Number of Employees: 2

Enter the 1 Employee details

1.Employee No.: 1234

2.Name: Ramesh

3.Salary: 12500

Enter the 2 Employee details

1.Employee No.: 2314

2.Name: Ganesh

3.Salary: 12500


Employee 1
1.Employee No.: 1234
2.Employee Name: Ramesh
3.Salary: 12500

Employee 2
1.Employee No.: 2314
2.Employee Name: Ganesh
3.Salary: 12500










RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to get and print the employee details using Structures was executed and the output was verified.
FILE MANIPULATION

Ex. No.: 17

AIM:
            To write a C Program to perform following file manipulation:
  1. Read a file
  2. Copy a file
  3. Change the case of the entire file
  4. Count the number of words, spaces and lines in a file.


C PROGRAM:

#include
#include
main()
{
 char ch,ct;
 int choice,tr,letters=0,words=0,spaces=0,lines=0;
 FILE *fp1,*fp2;
 do
 {
 fp1=fopen("data1.txt","r");
 printf("\nEnter u'r Choice\n");
 printf("\n1.Read the file\n2.Copy the file\n3.Change\n4.Count\n5.Exit\n");
 scanf("%d",&choice);
 switch(choice)
 {
  case 1:
  while(!feof(fp1))
  {
   ch=getc(fp1);
   printf("%c",ch);
  }
  break;
  case 2:
  fp2=fopen("data2.txt","w");
  fseek(fp1,0L,SEEK_SET);
  while(!feof(fp1))
  {
   ct=fgetc(fp1);
   tr=fputc(ct,fp2);
  }
  fclose(fp1);
  fclose(fp2);
  fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r");
  printf("The Content of the copied file is ");
  while(!feof(fp2))
  {
   ch=fgetc(fp2);
   printf("%c",ch);
  }
  fclose(fp2);
  break;
  case 3:
  fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r");
  while(!feof(fp2))
  {
   ch=getc(fp2);
   if((ch<91)&&(ch>=65))
   {
    ch=ch+32;
    printf("%c",ch);
   }
   else if((ch>=97)&&(ch<=122))
   {
    ch=ch-32;
    printf("%c",ch);
   }
   else
   {
    printf("%c",ch);
   }
  }
  break;
  case 4:
  fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r");
  while(!feof(fp2))
  {
   ch=fgetc(fp2);
   if(ch==' ')
   {
    spaces++;
   }
   else if (ch=='\n')
   {
    lines++;
   }
   else
   {
    letters++;
   }
  }
 printf("\nTotal lines: %d",lines);
 printf("\nTotal words: %d",spaces+lines);
 printf("\nTotal spaces: %d",spaces);
 printf("\nTotal letters: %d",spaces+lines+words);
 fclose(fp2);
 break;
 }
}
while(choice!=5);
}


SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter u'r Choice

1.Read the file
2.Copy the file
3.Change
4.Count
5.Exit
1
Wisdom better than the Rubies.
?
Enter u'r Choice

1.Read the file
2.Copy the file
3.Change
4.Count
5.Exit
2
The Content of the copied file is Wisdom better than the Rubies.
??
Enter u'r Choice

1.Read the file
2.Copy the file
3.Change
4.Count
5.Exit
3
wISDOM BETTER THAN THE rUBIES.
??
Enter u'r Choice

1.Read the file
2.Copy the file
3.Change
4.Count
5.Exit
4

Total lines: 1
Total words: 5
Total spaces: 4
Total letters: 5





























RESULT:
            Thus the FILE MANIPULATION operation was performed and the output was verified.


GREAEST AND SMALLEST NUMBER IN AN ARRAY

Ex.No.: 18

AIM:
            To write a C Program to find the greatest and smallest number in an array of integers.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Get the maximum limit for the array as ‘n’

Step 3: Using ‘for’ loop, get the array of integers to the value of ‘n’

Step 4: Again using ‘for’ loop, sole the following conditions.

Step 5: If the first digit is greater than the second, perform the following swap conditions.

Step 6: Swap the value of a[0] to ‘temp’, a[j] to a[i] and a[i] to ‘temp’.

Step 7: Print the result

Step 8: Stop




















PROGRAM:

#include
main()
 {
  int a[100],i,j,n,temp;
  printf("\nEnter the maximum limit: ");
  scanf("%d",&n);
  printf("\nEnter %d numbers: \n",n);
  for(i=0;i
   scanf("%d",&a[i]);
  for(i=0;i
  {
   for(j=i+1;j
   {
    if(a[i]>a[j])
    {
     temp=a[i];
     a[i]=a[j];
     a[j]=temp;
    }
   }
  }
  printf("\nThe smallest number is %d",a[0]);
  printf("\nThe biggest number is %d",a[n-1]);
 }

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc maxmin.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
Enter the maximum limit: 5
Enter 5 numbers:
9
6
2
10
15
The smallest number is 2
The biggest number is 15



RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to find the greatest and smallest number in an array was executed and the output was verified.

TO CHECK WHETHER THE NUMBER IS A PALINDROME OR NOT

Ex. No.: 19

AIM:
            To write a C Program to check if the given number is a palindrome or not

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Get the number as ‘n’

Step 3: Swap the value of ‘n’ to ‘c’.

Step 4: While the value of ‘n’ is greater than or equal to 1, solve the following expressions.

Step 5: Store the remainder of ‘n’ by 10 as ‘a’; Solve b=(b*10)+a; and  n=n/10

Step 6: If the value of ‘c’ is equal to ‘b’, print “The number is a palindrome”.

Step 7: If the above condition is not satisfied, print “The number is not a palindrome”.

Step 8: Stop.




















PROGRAM:

#include
main()
 {
  int a,c,n,b=0;
  printf("\nEnter a number: ");
  scanf("%d",&n);
  c=n;
  while(n>=1)
  {
   a=n%10;
   b=(b*10)+a;
   n=n/10;
  }
  if(c==b)
        printf("\nThe number is a palindrome\n");
  else
        printf("\nThe number is not a palindrome\n");
 }




SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc palin.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
Enter a number: 12321
The number is a palindrome

[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
Enter a number: 123
The number is not a palindrome








RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to check whether the number is a palindrome or not was executed and the output was verified.

SYSTEM CALL FOR A READ – ONLY FILE

Ex. No.:20

AIM:
            To write C Program to perform system call to open for a read-only file.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Initialize the integer variables- i and fd. Also initialize the string variable, buf[100].

Step 3: Open the already created file ‘aa’ as a read only and store its contents in fd.

Step 4: Read fd, buf, 100

Step 5: Using for loop, print the character array, buf[i]

Step 6: The data already stored in ‘aa’ along with the garbage value will be printed as output.

Step 7: Stop

Note:
            A file ‘aa’ with data must be created before the program is compiled and is run, to avoid segmentation error.

Header Files:

fcntl.h è File control Options

unistd.h è Standard symbolic constants and types.













PROGRAM:

#include
#include
#include
main()
 {
  int i,fd;
  char buf[100];
  fd=open("aa",O_RDONLY);
  read(fd,buf,100);
  for(i=0;i<100;i++)
  {
   printf("%c",buf[i]);
  }
 }





SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc syscall-r.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
My name is Barnabas
t��<@PB@,X@&8Z@0@@c@TB
B













RESULT:
            Thus the C Program for system call to open a read-only file was executed and the output was verified.

SYSTEM CALL FOR WRITE-ONLY FILE

Ex. No.: 21


AIM:
            To write a C Program to perform system call to open a write-only file.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Initialize the integer variables – ‘i’ and ‘fd’ with a character variable ‘buf[100]’.

Step 3: Get the data form the user and store it as ‘buf’.

Step 4: Open the file ‘aa’ as write-only and store it in fd.

Step 5: Write the data given by the user to the file and ‘fd’

Step 6: Stop

Note:
            After the program is run, open the file ‘aa’ to find the garbage values stored in it.
A file ‘aa’ with data must be created before the program is compiled and is run, to avoid segmentation error.

Header Files:

fcntl.h è File control Options

unistd.h è Standard symbolic constants and types.














PROGRAM:

#include
#include
#include
main()
 {
  int i,fd;
  char buf[100];
  printf("Give data: ");
  scanf("%s",buf);
  fd=open("aa",O_WRONLY);
  write(fd,buf,sizeof(buf));
 }

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc syscall-w.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
Give data: I study in VEC
[root@localhost C_Program]# cat aa
IBeBB
Bt��<@PB@,X@-8Z@0@@c@TBB













RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to perform system call to opena write-only file was executed and the output was verified.






IMPLEMENTATION OF COPY COMMAND

Ex. No.: 22

AIM:
            To write a C Program to implement copy command in UNIX.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Open the file to be copied, and store it in fp1

Step 3: Open a new file, where the contents are to be copied and store it in fp2.

Step 4: Copy all the characters one by one until the End of File.

Step 5: Close all the files.

Step 6: Stop.


























C PROGRAM:

#include
main(int a, char *av[2])
 {
  char ch;
  FILE *fp1,*fp2;
  fp1=fopen(av[1],"r");
  fp2=fopen(av[2],"w");
  while((ch=getc(fp1))!=EOF)
  {
   putc(ch,fp2);
  }
  fclose(fp1);
  fclose(fp2);
 }

SMAPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc copy.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# cat>a
Vel Tech Engineering College
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out a b
[root@localhost C_Program]# cat b
Vel Tech Engineering College














RESULT:

            Thus the  C Program to implement copy command in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.



IMPLEMENTATION OF WC COMMAND

Ex. No.: 23

AIM:
            To write a C Program to implement wc command in UNIX.

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Initialize the variables c=0; w=0; l=0.

Step 3: Using If – Else condition count the no. of characters, letters and words.

Step 4: Using string compare function, print the result with respect to the command given.

Step 5: Stop.


























C PROGRAM:

#include
main(int a,char *av[3])
 {
  FILE *f;
  char ch;
  int w=0,l=0,c=0;
  if(a==2)
  f=fopen(av[1],"r");
  else
  f=fopen(av[2],"r");
  while(!feof(f))
  {
   ch=getc(f);
   c=c++;
   if(ch==' '||ch=='\n')
   w=w+1;
   if(ch=='\n')
   l=l+1;
  }
  fclose(f);
  if(strcmp(av[1],"-c")==0)
  printf("\nThe no. of characters are %d\n",c-1);
  else if(strcmp(av[1],"-w")==0)
  printf("\nThe no. of words are %d\n",w);
  else if(strcmp(av[1],"-l")==0)
  printf("\nThe number of lines are %d\n",l);
  else if(av[2]=='\0')
  printf("\n%d\t%d\t%d\n",c-1,w,l);
 }

SAMPLE OUTPUT:
[root@localhost C_Program]# cc wc.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out msb
77      10      7
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -l msb
The number of lines are 7
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -w msb
The no. of words are 10
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -c msb
The no. of characters are 77

RESULT:
            Thus the C Program to implement wc commad in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.
                                                
FORK SYSTEM CALL

Ex. No.: 24

AIM:
            To write a C Program for FORK SYSTEM CALL

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Open the inbuilt function fork() inside the header file, unistd.h and store it in f

Step 3: When f is equal to 0, print the Child process ID, Parent ID and the process ID, using inbuilt ID functions.

Step 4: Stop.





























C PROGRAM:

#include
#include
main()
 {
  int f;
  f=fork();
  if(f==0)
  {
   printf("\nChild Process ID: %d\n",getpid());
   printf("\nParent ID: %d\n",getppid());
  }
  else
  {
   printf("\nProcess ID: %d\n",getpid());
   printf("\nParent ID: %d\n",getppid());
  }
 }

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc fork.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

Child Process ID: 3844

Parent ID: 3843

Process ID: 3843

Parent ID: 3673


RESULT:
            Thus the C Program for Fork System Call in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.









EXECL SYSTEM CALL

Ex. No.: 25
Date: 3rd May, 2006

AIM:
            To write a C Program for EXECL System Call in UNIX

ALGORITHM:

Step 1: Start

Step 2: Give the command for Execl, to print the Date and Time.

Step 3: Stop

C PROGRAM:

#include
#include
main()
 {
  execl("/bin/date","date",0);
 }

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc execl.c
[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out
Tue May  2 18:01:37 IST 2006
[root@localhost C_Program]#










RESULT:
            Thus the C Program for EXECL System Call in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.
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