186101 (HS2161) Technical English I Lecture Notes Word formation


Word formation
Changing words from one form to another.
Different parts of speech like noun, verb, adjective and adverb are formed by the addition of a syllable mostly at the end of a word. The process of adding syllables is called “affixing”.
The base word to which a syllable is affixed is called the root/stem. When a syllable  or word is affixed at the beginning of the root word, it is called a “prefix”. When we add at the end of the base word, it is called a “suffix”.
1.       Suffixes like---ant,---ator,---er,-----ist,----or are added to form personal nouns.
Immigrate- immigrant
Terminate—terminator
Conduct----conductor
2 .Suffixes ---ance,---ence,-----ation,---ion,---tion,---ism,---ment,-----ty----sion,---age,---ency can be us to form functional nouns.
Refer---reference
Maintain----maintenance
Invest---investment
Tour---tourism
Examine---examination
Secure---security
Bond----bondage
3.       Adjectives are formed by adding suffices like ----able,---al,---- iative,--- ical,--- ing,---ory,---tic .
Reason----- reasonable
Develop ----developing
Paralyze---- paralytic
Environment---- environmental
Collect---- collective
Technology technological
Preserve preservative

4.       Adverbs are generally formed by the addition of-ally,---ly,or---lly to most of the adjectives.
Verb                                   adjective                                  adverb
Comprehend                comprehensible              comprehensibly
Communicate             communicative           communicatively
Develop                       developing                  developmentally
                                       Developed
                                      Developmental

Exercises
Form nouns from adjective
1. Able            2. Ecological
 3. Brief           4. pure
 5. Friend          6.maintainable
7. Wide           8.destructive
 9. active          10.innovative

To remember
Antonyms of words can be borrowed by adding negative prefixes like a, an, anti, counter, de, dis, il, im, in, ir, mis, non, un etc.The following table presents the negative prefixes with their meanings.
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