### Fourth 4th Semester Syllabus - Anna University

MA 2262 PROBABILITY AND QUEUEING THEORY 3 1 0 4
(Common to CSE & IT)
AIM
The probabilistic models are employed in countless applications in all areas of science
and engineering. Queuing theory provides models for a number of situations that arise in
real life. The course aims at providing necessary mathematical support and confidence
to tackle real life problems.
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the course, the students would
 Have a well – founded knowledge of standard distributions which can describe
real life phenomena.
 Acquire skills in handling situations involving more than one random variable and
functions of random variables.
 Understand and characterize phenomena which evolve with respect to time in a
probabilistic manner.
 Be exposed to basic characteristic features of a queuing system and acquire
skills in analyzing queuing models.
UNIT I RANDOM VARIABLES 9 + 3
Discrete and continuous random variables - Moments - Moment generating functions
and their properties. Binomial, Poisson ,Geometric ,Negative binomial, Uniform,
Exponential, Gamma, and Weibull distributions .
UNIT II TWO DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIABLES 9 + 3
Joint distributions - Marginal and conditional distributions – Covariance - Correlation and
regression - Transformation of random variables - Central limit theorem.
UNIT III MARKOV PROCESSES AND MARKOV CHAINS 9 +
Classification - Stationary process - Markov process - Markov chains - Transition
probabilities - Limiting distributions-Poisson process UNIT IV QUEUEING THEORY 9 + 3
Markovian models – Birth and Death Queuing models- Steady state results: Single and
multiple server queuing models- queues with finite waiting rooms- Finite source models-
Little’s Formula
UNIT V NON-MARKOVIAN QUEUES AND QUEUE NETWORKS 9 + 3
M/G/1 queue- Pollaczek- Khintchine formula, series queues- open and closed networks
TUTORIAL 15 TOTAL : 60 TEXT BOOKS
1. O.C. Ibe, “Fundamentals of Applied Probability and Random Processes”,
Elsevier, 1st Indian Reprint, 2007 (For units 1, 2 and 3).
2. D. Gross and C.M. Harris, “Fundamentals of Queueing Theory”, Wiley
Student edition, 2004 (For units 4 and 5).
BOOKS FOR REFERENCES: 1. A.O. Allen, “Probability, Statistics and Queueing Theory with Computer
Applications”, Elsevier, 2nd edition, 2005.
2. H.A. Taha, “Operations Research”, Pearson Education, Asia, 8th edition, 2007.
3. K.S. Trivedi, “Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queueing and
Computer Science Applications”, John Wiley and Sons, 2nd edition, 2002.
16
CS 2251 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS 3 1 0 4
UNIT I 9
Algorithm Analysis – Time Space Tradeoff – Asymptotic Notations – Conditional
asymptotic notation – Removing condition from the conditional asymptotic notation -
Properties of big-Oh notation – Recurrence equations – Solving recurrence equations –
Analysis of linear search.
UNIT II 9
Divide and Conquer: General Method – Binary Search – Finding Maximum and Minimum
– Merge Sort – Greedy Algorithms: General Method – Container Loading – Knapsack
Problem.
UNIT III 9
Dynamic Programming: General Method – Multistage Graphs – All-Pair shortest paths –
Optimal binary search trees – 0/1 Knapsack – Travelling salesperson problem .
UNIT IV 9
Backtracking: General Method – 8 Queens problem – sum of subsets – graph coloring –
Hamiltonian problem – knapsack problem.
UNIT V 9
Graph Traversals – Connected Components – Spanning Trees – Biconnected
components – Branch and Bound: General Methods (FIFO & LC) – 0/1 Knapsack
problem – Introduction to NP-Hard and NP-Completeness.
TUTORIAL = 15 Total = 60
TEXT BOOK:
1. Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni and Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Computer
Algorithms/ C++, Second Edition, Universities Press, 2007. (For Units II to V)
2. K.S. Easwarakumar, Object Oriented Data Structures using C++, Vikas
Publishing House pvt. Ltd., 2000 (For Unit I)
REFERENCES:
1. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R.L.Rivest, and C. Stein, "Introduction to Algorithms",
Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 2003.
2. Alfred V. Aho, John E. Hopcroft and Jeffrey D. Ullman, "The Design and Analysis of
Computer Algorithms", Pearson Education, 1999.
17
CS2252 MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS 3 0 0 3
(Common to CSE & IT)
1. THE 8085 AND 8086 MICROPROCESSORS 9
8085 Microprocessor architecture-Addressing modes- Instruction set-Programming the
8085
2. 8086 SOFTWARE ASPECTS 9
Intel 8086 microprocessor - Architecture - Signals- Instruction Set-Addressing Modes-
Assembler Directives- Assembly Language Programming-Procedures-Macros-Interrupts
And Interrupt Service Routines-BIOS function calls.
3. MULTIPROCESSOR CONFIGURATIONS 9
Coprocessor Configuration – Closely Coupled Configuration – Loosely Coupled
Configuration –8087 Numeric Data Processor – Data Types – Architecture –8089 I/O
Processor –Architecture –Communication between CPU and IOP.
4. I/O INTERFACING 9
Memory interfacing and I/O interfacing with 8085 – parallel communication interface –
serial communication interface – timer-keyboard/display controller – interrupt controller –
DMA controller (8237) – applications – stepper motor – temperature control.
5. MICROCONTROLLERS 9
Architecture of 8051 Microcontroller – signals – I/O ports – memory – counters and
timers – serial data I/O – interrupts-
TOTAL: 45
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Ramesh S. Gaonkar ,”Microprocessor – Architecture, Programming and
Applications with the 8085” Penram International Publisher , 5th Ed.,2006
2. Yn-cheng Liu,Glenn A.Gibson, “Microcomputer systems: The 8086 / 8088
Family architecture, Programming and Design”, second edition, Prentice Hall
of India , 2006 .
3. Kenneth J.Ayala, ’The 8051 microcontroller Architecture, Programming and
applications‘ second edition ,Penram international.
REFERENCES:
1. Douglas V.Hall, “ Microprocessors and Interfacing : Programming and
Hardware”, second edition , Tata Mc Graw Hill ,2006.
2. A.K.Ray & K.M Bhurchandi, “Advanced Microprocessor and Peripherals –
Architecture, Programming and Interfacing”, Tata Mc Graw Hill , 2006.
3. Peter Abel, “ IBM PC Assembly language and programming” , fifth edition,
Pearson education / Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd,2007.
4. Mohamed Ali Mazidi,Janice Gillispie Mazidi,” The 8051 microcontroller and
embedded systems using Assembly and C”,second edition, Pearson
education /Prentice hall of India , 2007.
18
CS 2253 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE 3 0 0 3
(Common to CSE & IT)
1. BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS 9
Functional units – Basic operational concepts – Bus structures – Performance and
metrics – Instructions and instruction sequencing – Hardware – Software Interface –
Instruction set architecture – Addressing modes – RISC – CISC. ALU design – Fixed
point and floating point operations.
2. BASIC PROCESSING UNIT 9
Fundamental concepts – Execution of a complete instruction – Multiple bus organization
– Hardwired control – Micro programmed control – Nano programming.
3. PIPELINING 9
Basic concepts – Data hazards – Instruction hazards – Influence on instruction sets –
Data path and control considerations – Performance considerations – Exception
handling.
4. MEMORY SYSTEM 9
Basic concepts – Semiconductor RAM – ROM – Speed – Size and cost – Cache
memories – Improving cache performance – Virtual memory – Memory management
requirements – Associative memories – Secondary storage devices.
5. I/O ORGANIZATION 9
Accessing I/O devices – Programmed Input/Output -Interrupts – Direct Memory Access
– Buses – Interface circuits – Standard I/O Interfaces (PCI, SCSI, USB), I/O devices and
processors.
TOTAL = 45
Text Book:
1. Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, “Computer Organization”,
Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002.
REFERENCES:
1. David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, “Computer Organization and Design:
The Hardware/Software interface”, Third Edition, Elsevier, 2005.
2. William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for
Performance”, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
3. John P. Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organization”, Third Edition, Tata
McGraw Hill, 1998.
4. V.P. Heuring, H.F. Jordan, “Computer Systems Design and Architecture”,
Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.
19
CS 2254 OPERATING SYSTEMS 3 0 0 3
(Common to CSE & IT)
Aim: To learn the various aspects of operating systems such as process management,
memory management, and I/O management
UNIT I PROCESSES AND THREADS 9
Introduction to operating systems – review of computer organization – operating system
structures – system calls – system programs – system structure – virtual machines.
Processes: Process concept – Process scheduling – Operations on processes –
Cooperating processes – Interprocess communication – Communication in client-server
UNIT II PROCESS SCHEDULING AND SYNCHRONIZATION 10
CPU Scheduling: Scheduling criteria – Scheduling algorithms – Multiple-processor
scheduling – Real time scheduling – Algorithm Evaluation. Case study: Process
scheduling in Linux. Process Synchronization: The critical-section problem –
Synchronization hardware – Semaphores – Classic problems of synchronization –
UNIT III STORAGE MANAGEMENT 9
Memory Management: Background – Swapping – Contiguous memory allocation –
Paging – Segmentation – Segmentation with paging. Virtual Memory: Background –
Demand paging – Process creation – Page replacement – Allocation of frames –
Thrashing. Case Study: Memory management in Linux
UNIT IV FILE SYSTEMS 9
File-System Interface: File concept – Access methods – Directory structure – Filesystem
mounting – Protection. File-System Implementation : Directory implementation –
Allocation methods – Free-space management – efficiency and performance – recovery
– log-structured file systems. Case studies: File system in Linux – file system in
Windows XP
UNIT V I/O SYSTEMS 8
I/O Systems – I/O Hardware – Application I/O interface – kernel I/O subsystem –
streams – performance. Mass-Storage Structure: Disk scheduling – Disk management –
Swap-space management – RAID – disk attachment – stable storage – tertiary storage.
Case study: I/O in Linux
Total: 45
TEXT BOOK:
1. Silberschatz, Galvin, and Gagne, “Operating System Concepts”, Sixth Edition, Wiley
India Pvt Ltd, 2003.
REFERENCES:
1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Modern Operating Systems”, Second Edition, Pearson
Education, 2004.
2. Gary Nutt, “Operating Systems”, Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.
3. Harvey M. Deital, “Operating Systems”, Third Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.
20
CS 2255 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 3 0 0 3
(Common to CSE & IT)
1. INTRODUCTION 9
Purpose of Database System -– Views of data – Data Models – Database Languages ––
Database System Architecture – Database users and Administrator – Entity–
Relationship model (E-R model ) – E-R Diagrams -- Introduction to relational databases
2. RELATIONAL MODEL 9
The relational Model – The catalog- Types– Keys - Relational Algebra – Domain
Relational Calculus – Tuple Relational Calculus - Fundamental operations – Additional
Operations- SQL fundamentals - Integrity – Triggers - Security – Advanced SQL
features –Embedded SQL– Dynamic SQL- Missing Information– Views – Introduction
to Distributed Databases and Client/Server Databases
3. DATABASE DESIGN 9
Functional Dependencies – Non-loss Decomposition – Functional Dependencies – First,
Second, Third Normal Forms, Dependency Preservation – Boyce/Codd Normal Form-
Multi-valued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form – Join Dependencies and Fifth
Normal Form
4. TRANSACTIONS 9
Transaction Concepts - Transaction Recovery – ACID Properties – System Recovery –
Media Recovery – Two Phase Commit - Save Points – SQL Facilities for recovery –
Concurrency – Need for Concurrency – Locking Protocols – Two Phase Locking –
Intent Locking – Deadlock- Serializability – Recovery Isolation Levels – SQL Facilities
for Concurrency.
5. IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES 9
Overview of Physical Storage Media – Magnetic Disks – RAID – Tertiary storage – File
Organization – Organization of Records in Files – Indexing and Hashing –Ordered
Indices – B+ tree Index Files – B tree Index Files – Static Hashing – Dynamic Hashing –
Operation – Sorting – Join Operation – Database Tuning.
TOTAL = 45
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korth, S. Sudharshan, “Database System
Concepts”, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006 (Unit I and Unit-V) .
2. C.J.Date, A.Kannan, S.Swamynathan, “An Introduction to Database Systems”,
Eighth Edition, Pearson Education, 2006.( Unit II, III and IV)
REFERENCES:
1. Ramez Elmasri, Shamkant B. Navathe, “Fundamentals of Database Systems”,
FourthEdition , Pearson / Addision wesley, 2007.
2. Raghu Ramakrishnan, “Database Management Systems”, Third Edition, McGraw
Hill, 2003.
3. S.K.Singh, “Database Systems Concepts, Design and Applications”, First Edition,
Pearson Education, 2006.
21
CS 2257 OPERATING SYSTEMS LAB 0 0 3 2
(Common to CSE & IT)
(Implement the following on LINUX or other Unix like platform. Use C for high level
language implementation)
1. Write programs using the following system calls of UNIX operating system:
fork, exec, getpid, exit, wait, close, stat, opendir, readdir
2. Write programs using the I/O system calls of UNIX operating system (open, read,
write, etc)
3. Write C programs to simulate UNIX commands like ls, grep, etc.
4. Given the list of processes, their CPU burst times and arrival times, display/print
the Gantt chart for FCFS and SJF. For each of the scheduling policies, compute
and print the average waiting time and average turnaround time. (2 sessions)
5. Given the list of processes, their CPU burst times and arrival times, display/print
the Gantt chart for Priority and Round robin. For each of the scheduling policies,
compute and print the average waiting time and average turnaround time. (2
sessions)
6. Developing Application using Inter Process communication (using shared
memory, pipes or message queues)
7. Implement the Producer – Consumer problem using semaphores (using UNIX
system calls).
8. Implement some memory management schemes – I
9. Implement some memory management schemes – II
10. Implement any file allocation technique (Linked, Indexed or Contiguous)
Example for exercises 8 & 9 :
Free space is maintained as a linked list of nodes with each node having the starting
byte address and the ending byte address of a free block. Each memory request
consists of the process-id and the amount of storage space required in bytes. Allocated
memory space is again maintained as a linked list of nodes with each node having the
process-id, starting byte address and the ending byte address of the allocated space.
When a process finishes (taken as input) the appropriate node from the allocated list
should be deleted and
this free disk space should be added to the free space list. [Care should be taken to
merge contiguous free blocks into one single block. This results in deleting more than
one node from the free space list and changing the start and end address in the
appropriate node]. For allocation use first fit, worst fit and best fit.
22
Hardware and Software required for a batch of 30 students.
HARDWARE:
30 Personal Computers
SOFTWARE:
Linux:
 Ubuntu / OpenSUSE / Fedora / Red Hat / Debian / Mint OS
Linux could be loaded in individual PCs.
(OR)
A single server could be loaded with Linux and connected from the individual
PCs.
Total: 45
23
CS 2258 DBMS LAB 0 0 3 2
(Common to CSE & IT)
1. Data Definition, Table Creation, Constraints,
2. Insert, Select Commands, Update & Delete Commands.
3. Nested Queries & Join Queries
4. Views
5. High level programming language extensions (Control structures, Procedures and
Functions).
6. Front end tools
7. Forms
8. Triggers
10. Reports.
11..Database Design and implementation (Mini Project).
(Common to Information Technology & Computer Science Engineering)
Hardware and Software required for a batch of 30 students:
Hardware:
30 Personal Computers
Software:
Front end : VB/VC ++/JAVA
Back end: Oracle 11g, my SQL, DB2
Platform: Windows 2000 Professional/XP
Oracle server could be loaded and can be connected from individual PCs.
24
CS2259 MICROPROCESSORS LABORATORY 0 0 3 2
(Common to CSE & IT)
AIM:
 To learn the assembly language programming of 8085,8086 and 8051 and also
to give a practical training of interfacing the peripheral devices with the
processor.
OBJECTIVES:
 To implement the assembly language programming of 8085,8086 and 8051.
 To study the system function calls like BIOS/DOS.
 To experiment the interface concepts of various peripheral device with the
processor.
Experiments in the following:
1. Programming with 8085
2. Programming with 8086-experiments including BIOS/DOS calls:
Keyboard control, Display, File Manipulation.
3. Interfacing with 8085/8086-8255,8253
4. Interfacing with 8085/8086-8279,8251
5. 8051 Microcontroller based experiments for Control Applications
6. Mini- Project
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
List of equipments/components for 30 students (two per batch)
1. 8085 Trainer Kit with onboard 8255, 8253, 8279 and 8251 – 15 nos.
2. TASM/MASM simulator in PC (8086 programs) – 30 nos.
3. 8051 trainer kit – 15 nos.
4. Interfacing with 8086 – PC add-on cards with 8255, 8253, 8279 and 8251 – 15
nos.
5. Stepper motor interfacing module – 5 nos.
6. Traffic light controller interfacing module – 5 nos.
7. ADC, DAC interfacing module – 5 nos.
8. CRO’s – 5 nos.
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